SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the transition period from ___ to ___
Commission File Number: 001-37552
WILLSCOT MOBILE MINI HOLDINGS CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
4646 E Van Buren St., Suite 400
Phoenix, Arizona 85008
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of Each Class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered|
|Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share||WSC|
The Nasdaq Capital Market
|Warrants to purchase Common Stock(1)||WSCWW||OTC Markets Group Inc.|
|Warrants to purchase Common Stock(2)||WSCTW||OTC Markets Group Inc.|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulations S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
(1) Issued in connection with the initial public offering of Double Eagle Acquisition Corp., the registrant's legal predecessor company, in September 2015, which are exercisable for one-half of one share of the registrant's common stock for an exercise price of $5.75.
(2) Issued in connection with the registrant's acquisition of Modular Space Holding, Inc. in August 2018, which are exercisable for one share of the registrant's common stock at an exercise price of $15.50 per share.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☒
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the common shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed as of June 30, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second quarter), was approximately $715,019,406.
Shares of Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, outstanding: 229,046,278 shares at February 22, 2021.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference from the registrant's definitive proxy statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2021, which definitive proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Report relates.
WillScot Mobile Mini Holdings Corp.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents
ITEM 1. Business
Unless the context otherwise requires, “we,” “us,” “our” and the “Company” refers to WillScot Mobile Mini Holdings Corp. ("WillScot Mobile Mini") and its subsidiaries.
Headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, we are a leading business services provider specializing in innovative flexible work space and portable storage solutions. We service diverse end markets across all sectors of the economy from a network of approximately 275 branch locations and additional drop lots throughout the United States (“US”), Canada, Mexico, and the United Kingdom ("UK").
With roots dating back more than 60 years, we lease modular space and portable storage units (our “lease fleet”) to customers in the commercial and industrial, construction, education, energy and natural resources, government, and other end markets. We offer our customers an extensive section of “Ready to Work” solutions. In addition to our "Ready to Work" solutions, we offer value-added products and services, such as the rental of steps, ramps, and furniture packages, damage waivers, and other amenities to improve the overall customer experience. These turnkey solutions offer customers flexible, low-cost, and timely solutions to meet their flexible work space and storage needs on an outsourced basis.
On July 1, 2020, WillScot Corporation ("WillScot") combined with Mobile Mini, Inc. ("Mobile Mini") in a stock-for-stock merger (the "Merger"), and WillScot changed names to WillScot Mobile Mini Holdings Corp. WillScot Mobile Mini is the holding company for the Williams Scotsman and Mobile Mini family of companies. As a result of the Merger, the Company operates in four reportable segments as follows: North America Modular Solutions ("NA Modular"), North America Storage Solutions ("NA Storage"), United Kingdom Storage Solutions ("UK Storage"), and Tank and Pump Solutions ("Tank and Pump"). The NA Modular segment aligns with the WillScot legacy business prior to the Merger, and the NA Storage, UK Storage, and Tank and Pump segments align with the Mobile Mini segments prior to the Merger. Within this Annual Report, we have presented certain financial information on a pro forma basis and supplemental pro forma financial statements within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations to include Mobile Mini's results as if the Merger and related financing transactions had occurred on January 1, 2019, as we believe this is a better representation of the go-forward combined company and is useful to investors.
Products and Services
Modular Space Solutions
Our modular space units meet a broad range of customer needs. Our modular units are typically made of steel and aluminum frames, as well as traditional building materials, and range from standalone portable units as small as 24 square feet to large complex units that can be coupled together or stacked to create versatile work spaces in excess of 10,000 square feet. In all cases, we deploy modular units to customers rapidly from our extensive branch network using our hybrid in-house and outsourced logistics and service infrastructure. We specialize in turnkey ‘Ready to Work’ solutions, which means our units can arrive fully equipped with air conditioning, heating, and filtration units, electrical and Ethernet ports, plumbing and utility hookups, as well as our proprietary line of furnishings and appliances, which we together refer to as Value-Added Products and Services (“VAPS”). Our units are transported by truck, either towed (if fitted with axles and hitches) or mounted on flat-bed trailers.
Modular space units have attractive economic characteristics, and our ability to lease and maintain our assets’ profitability over economic lives, which often exceed 20 years, is a unique capability and competitive advantage. We utilize standard fleet maintenance procedures across the branch network, monitor fleet condition and allocate capital expenditures centrally, and ensure all units meet consistent quality and condition requirements, regardless of unit age, prior to delivery to a customer. Modular leasing is complemented by new unit sales and sales of rental units. In connection with our leasing and sales activities, we provide services including delivery and installation, maintenance and ad hoc services, and removal services at the end of lease transactions.
Panelized and Stackable Offices. Our FlexTM panelized and stackable offices are the next generation of modular space technology and offer maximum flexibility and design configurations. These units provide a modern, innovative design, smaller footprint, ground level access, and interchangeable panels, including all glass panels that allow customers to configure the space to their precise requirements. These units have the ability to expand upwards (up to three stories) and outwards, providing maximum versatility.
Single-Wide Modular Space Units. Single-wide modular space units include mobile offices and sales offices. These units offer maximum ease of installation and removal and are deployed across the broadest range of applications in our fleet. These units typically have “open interiors,” which can be modified using movable partitions, and include tile floors, air conditioning, heating, and filtration units, partitions and, if requested, toilet facilities.
Section Modulars and Redi-Plex. Section modulars are two or more units combined into one structure. Redi-Plex complexes offer advanced versatility for large, open floor plans or custom layouts with private offices. Redi-Plex is built with clearspan construction, which eliminates interference from support columns and allows for up to sixty feet of open building width and building lengths that increase in twelve-foot increments based on the number of units coupled together. Our proprietary design meets a wide range of national and state building, electrical, mechanical, and plumbing codes, which creates versatility in fleet management. Examples of section modular units include hospital diagnostic annexes, special events headquarters, temporary data centers, and larger general commercial offices.
Classrooms. Classroom units are generally double-wide units adapted specifically for use by school systems or universities. Classroom units usually feature teaching aids, air conditioning, heating, and filtration units, windows and, if requested, toilet facilities.
Ground Level Offices and Container Offices. We also offer steel ground level offices from 10 to 40 feet in length and 8 or 10 feet in width. Many of these units are converted to office use from International Organization for Standardization ("ISO") certified shipping containers. These offices are available in various configurations, including all-office floor plans or office and storage combination units that provide a 10‑ or 15‑foot office with the remaining area available for storage. Ground level offices provide the advantage of ground accessibility for ease of access and high security in an all‑steel design. These office units are equipped with electrical wiring, air conditioning, heating, filtration units, phone jacks, carpet or tile, high security doors, and windows with security bars or shutters. Some of these offices are also equipped with sinks, hot water heaters, cabinets, and toilet facilities.
Other Modular Space. We offer a range of other specialty products that vary across regions and provide flexibility to serve demands for local markets. Examples include workforce accommodation units with dining facilities used to house workers, often in remote locations, blast-resistant units, and toilet facilities to complement office and classroom units.
Portable Storage Solutions
Portable Storage Containers. Our portable storage containers offer an assortment of differentiated features such as patented locking systems, premium and multiple door options, optional climate control, and numerous configuration options. Standard portable storage containers are made from weather‑resistant corrugated steel and are available in lengths ranging from 5 to 48 feet, widths of either 8 feet or 10 feet, and a variety of configuration options. Doors can be placed at the front, front and back, or the sides of containers. Other options include partitions and shelving. Storage containers can be equipped with our patented Tri‑Cam Locking System®, which features a waist‑level opening lever and interlocking bars to provide easy access for the owner without sacrificing security. We also offer ContainerGuardLock®, an optional security device, which features a hidden six‑pin tumbler system and is made from drill‑resistant hardened steel. We believe these steel storage containers are a cost‑effective alternative to mass warehouse storage, with a high level of security to protect our customers' goods.
Steel containers have a long useful life with no technical obsolescence. Our portable storage containers have estimated useful lives of 30 years from the date we build or acquire and remanufacture them, with average residual values in excess of 50%. We maintain our steel containers on a regular basis by removing rust, painting them with rust inhibiting paint, plug‑welding holes, and occasionally replacing the wooden floor or a rusted steel panel. Repainting the outside of storage units is the most common maintenance item. A properly maintained container is essentially in the same condition as when it was initially remanufactured.
The remanufacturing process begins with the purchase of used ISO containers from leasing companies, shipping lines, and brokers. These containers were originally built to ISO standards and are 8 feet wide, up to 9.5 feet high and 20, 40 or 45 feet long. After acquisition, we remanufacture and modify these ISO containers. Remanufacturing typically involves cleaning, removing rust and dents, repairing floors and sidewalls, painting, adding our signs, and further customizing units by adding our proprietary easy opening door system and our patented locking system. Modification typically involves splitting some containers into differing lengths.
We offer a thoughtfully curated portfolio of VAPS that make modular space and portable storage units more productive, comfortable, secure, and “Ready to Work” for our customers. We lease furniture, steps, ramps, basic appliances, internet connectivity devices, and other items to our customers for use in connection with our products. We also offer our lease customers a damage waiver program that protects them in case the leased unit is damaged. For customers who do not select the damage waiver program, we bill them for the cost of repairs above and beyond normal wear and tear. Importantly, management believes that our scale, branch network, supply chain, and sales performance management tools give us a significant advantage in delivering “Ready to Work” solutions and growing VAPS revenue relative to our competitors.
Delivery, Installation and Removal
We operate a hybrid in-house and outsourced logistics and service infrastructure that provides delivery, site work, installation, disassembly, unhooking and removal, and other services to our customers for an additional fee as part of our leasing and sales operations. Revenue from delivery, site work, and installation results from the transportation of units to a customer's location, site work required prior to installation, and installation of the units which have been leased or sold. Typically, modular units are placed on temporary foundations constructed by our in‑house service technicians or
subcontractors. These in‑house service technicians or subcontractors also generally install any ancillary products and VAPS. We also derive revenue from disassembling, unhooking, and removing units once a lease expires. We believe that our logistics and service capabilities are unrivaled in the industry, differentiate us from competitors, and enhance our value proposition to our customers.
Tank and Pump Solutions
Our Tank and Pump Solutions business offers a broad range of liquid and solid specialty containment equipment and services complemented by an assortment of pumps, filtration units, and waste hauling services. In addition, ancillary products for rental and for sale are available, such as hoses, pipes, filters, and spill containment. Our principal products and services within our Tank and Pump Solutions business include steel tanks, stainless steel tank trailers, roll‑off boxes, vacuum boxes, dewatering boxes, pumps and filtration equipment, and value‑added services.
Our fleet of steel tanks offers flexible sizes and other options such as weir, gas buster, and open top steel tanks for applications ranging from temporary storage of chemicals, water, and other liquids, thorough mixing, agitation, and circulation of stored liquids with other products, and removal of gas from fluids circulated in the wellbore—such as mud used during drilling operations and settling of solids in liquids prior to filtration or discharge. Our stainless-steel tankers meet Department of Transportation specifications for use in the storage and transportation of chemical, caustics, and other liquids and are offered insulated or non‑insulated with level indication and vapor recovery capability. Roll‑off boxes provide simple, leak‑proof storage and transportation of solid industrial byproducts and are utilized for a variety of containment applications where it is necessary to maintain the homogeneity of the contents. Roll-tarps or rolling metal lids are available to protect the contents from the elements during transport or storage. Vacuum roll‑off boxes are also offered to pair with a vacuum truck for containment, storage, or transportation of pressurized contents. Dewatering boxes are configured to provide for the draining of excess liquid from slurry or sludge which reduces storage, transportation, and disposal costs. Upon completion of dewatering, the container is generally picked up by a roll‑off truck for content disposal. Vacuum dewatering boxes are also offered. In addition, we offer a variety of pumps and filtration equipment that can be used primarily for liquid circulation and filtration in municipal and industrial applications.
Additional services performed by our specialty containment employees include transportation of containers for waste management between multiple locations or in-plant, waste management oversight and service provision by an on-site dedicated team, system design including assessment of pumping, filtration and temporary storage needs, and field services to correctly install and connect customer containment equipment.
We primarily lease our modular and portable storage units to customers, which results in a highly diversified and predictable recurring revenue stream. For the year ended December 31, 2020, over 90% of new lease orders were on our standard lease agreement, pre-negotiated master lease, or national account agreements. The initial lease periods vary, and our leases are customarily renewable on a month-to-month basis after their initial term. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the average effective duration of our consolidated lease portfolio was approximately 32 months. As a result, our lease revenue is highly predictable due to its recurring nature and the underlying stability and diversification of our lease portfolio.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, our average minimum contractual lease term at the time of delivery in our NA Modular segment for modular space units and portable storage units was 11 months and 7 months, respectively. However, given that our customers value flexibility, they consistently extend their leases or renew on a month-to-month basis such that the average effective duration of our NA Modular segment lease portfolio was over 34 months. Customers are responsible for the costs of delivery and set-up, dismantling and pick-up, customer-specified modifications, costs to return custom modifications back to standard configuration at end of lease, and any loss or damage beyond normal wear and tear. Our leases generally require customers to maintain liability and property insurance covering the units during the lease term and to indemnify us from losses caused by the negligence of the customer or their employees.
Rental contracts with customers within our NA Storage and UK Storage segments are generally based on a 28‑day rate and billing cycle. The rental continues until cancelled by the customer or us. On average, steel storage containers on rent in our NA Storage and UK Storage segments for the year ended December 31, 2020 had been in place for over 31 months, and the steel ground level offices on rent for the year ended December 31, 2020 had been in place for approximately 15 months. Rental contracts provide that the customer is responsible for the cost of delivery and pickup and specify that the customer is liable for any damage done to the unit beyond ordinary wear and tear. Customers may purchase a damage waiver to avoid damage liability in certain circumstances, which provides an additional source of recurring revenue. Customer possessions stored within a portable storage unit are the responsibility of that customer.
Rental contracts with Tank and Pump Solutions customers typically offer daily, weekly, or monthly rates. Certain larger customers have multi‑year agreements that limit rate increases during the term of the contract. The rental duration varies widely by application, and the rental continues until the unit is returned in clean condition to us. Rental contracts specify that the customer is responsible for carrying commercial general liability insurance, is liable for any damage to the unit beyond ordinary wear and tear, and for all materials the customer contains in rented equipment. The customer is contractually responsible for the cost of delivery and pickup, as well as thoroughly emptying and cleaning the equipment before return.
Demand for our products varies by end market. Construction customers typically reflect higher demand during months with more temperate weather, while demand from large retailers is stronger from September through December, when
more space is needed to store holiday inventories. Retail customers usually return these rented units in December and early in the following year, but also undertake ongoing rolling store renovations which present consistent recurring demand throughout the year. In our Tank and Pump Solutions business, demand from customers is typically higher in the middle of the year from March to October, driven by the timing of customer maintenance projects.
As of December 31, 2020, we had over 368,000 total units including over 157,000 modular space units, over 197,000 portable storage units, over 12,500 tank and pump units, and other value-added products representing fleet net book value of $2.9 billion. Approximately 109,766 of our modular space units, or 70% and 151,206 of our portable storage units, or 76% were on rent as of December 31, 2020, and tank and pump Original Equipment Cost ("OEC") utilization was 64.8% as of December 31, 2020.
We complement our core leasing business by selling both new and used units, allowing us to leverage our scale, achieve purchasing benefits, and redeploy capital employed in our lease fleet. Generally, we purchase new units from a broad network of third-party manufacturers. We only purchase new modular space units for resale when we have obtained firm purchase orders (which normally are non-cancelable and include up-front deposits) for such units. Buying units directly for resale adds scale to our purchasing, which is beneficial to our overall supplier relationships and purchasing terms. New unit sales are a natural extension of our leasing operations in situations where customers have long-lived or permanent projects, making it more cost-effective to purchase rather than to lease a standard unit, and our customers benefit from our product expertise and delivery and installation capabilities.
In the normal course of managing our business, we also sell idle, used rental units at fair market value and units that are already on rent if the customer expresses interest in owning, rather than continuing to rent, the unit. The sale of units from our rental equipment has historically been both a profitable and cost-effective method to finance the replenishment and upgrade of our lease fleet, as well as to generate free cash flow during periods of lower rental demand and utilization. Our sales business may include modifying or customizing units to meet customer requirements. We also offer delivery, installation, and removal-related services for an additional fee as part of our sales operations.
Our customers operate in a diversified set of end markets, including construction, commercial and industrial, retail and wholesale trade, education, energy and natural resources, government, and healthcare. Core to our operating model is the ability to redeploy standardized assets across end markets. We have recently serviced emerging demand in the healthcare and government sectors related to COVID‑19, as well as expanded space requirements related to social distancing. We track several market leading indicators in order to predict demand, including those related to our two largest end markets, the commercial and industrial end market, and the construction end market, which collectively accounted for approximately 43% and 42% of our pro forma revenues, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2020. In order to optimize the use of fleet assets across our branch network, we centrally manage fleet rebalancing across our end markets. This allows us to serve 15 distinct end markets in which no customer accounted for more than 2% of pro forma revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020.
For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, no one customer accounted for more than 3% of our total pro forma revenues. For the year ended December 31, 2020, no one customer accounted for more than 2% of pro forma revenues, our top 10 customers accounted for approximately 6% of pro forma revenues, and our top 50 customers accounted for less than 13% of revenues on a pro forma basis, reflecting low customer concentration and significant project diversification within our portfolio.
Our logistics and service infrastructure is designed to enable us to meet or exceed our customers’ expectations by reacting quickly, efficiently, and with consistent service levels. As a result, we have established strong relationships with a diverse customer base, ranging from large multinational companies to local sole proprietors. Including customers acquired from Mobile Mini, we served over 85,000 unique customers in 2020. We believe that our customers prefer our modular space and portable storage products over fixed, on-site built space because they are a quick, flexible, cost‑effective, and low-risk solution for temporary or permanent expansion or storage.
Our strategy involves operating standardized rental equipment and "Ready to Work" solutions that can be redeployed across our diversified customer base and branch network in 15 discrete end markets. Key customer end markets include:
Construction and Infrastructure
We provide office and storage space to a broad array of contractors associated with non-residential buildings and non-building infrastructure. Our client portfolio includes many of the largest general contractors and engineering, architecture, procurement, and construction companies in North America, as well as home builders, developers, and subcontractors. Examples include highway, street, bridge, and tunnel contractors; water, sewer, communication, and power line contractors; and special construction trades, including glass, glazing, and demolition. Our construction and infrastructure customer base is characterized by a wide variety of contractors that are associated with original construction as well as capital improvements in the private, institutional, and municipal arenas. Units are used as offices, break rooms, accommodations, security offices, and other applications.
Commercial and Industrial
Customers in this category use our products as their primary office or retail space, to expand their existing commercial workspace, to increase their storage capabilities, or as temporary space for festivals, sporting, and other events. Customers in this category span a variety of industries ranging from commercial offices; chemicals and other manufacturing; agriculture, forestry and fishing; arts, media, hotels, and entertainment; and other industrial end markets.
The commercial and industrial segment also includes customers in retail and wholesale trade. These include department, drug, grocery, and strip mall stores, logistics, warehousing and distribution services, as well as restaurants, service stations, and dry cleaners. Our customers in retail and wholesale trade include big‑box retailers who have storage needs during renovations or other large on-site projects. On a stand‑alone basis, retail and wholesale trade customers comprised approximately 11% of fiscal year 2020 rental revenue; on a pro forma basis, these customers comprised approximately 12% of fiscal year 2020 rental revenue.
Energy and Natural Resources
Our products are leased to companies involved in electricity generation and transmission, utilities, up- mid- and down-stream oil and gas, mining exploration and extraction, and other related sectors. Units are used as temporary offices, break rooms, accommodations, security offices, and other applications.
Rapid shifts in populations within regions, as well as recent needs to expand square footage per student in in-person education settings, often necessitate quick expansion of education facilities, particularly in elementary and secondary schools and universities and colleges. Regional and local governmental budgetary pressures, classroom size reduction legislation, refurbishment of existing facilities, and the expansion of charter schools have made modular classrooms a convenient and cost-effective way to expand capacity in education settings. In addition, our products are used as classrooms when schools are undergoing large scale modernization, which allows continuous operation of a school while modernization progresses.
Government and Institutions
Government customers consist of national, state, provincial, and local public sector organizations. Modular space and portable storage solutions are particularly attractive to focused niches such as healthcare facilities, small municipal buildings, courthouses, military installations, national security buildings, and offices during building modernization, as well as disaster relief.
We believe that the following competitive strengths have been instrumental to our success and position us for future growth:
North American Leader in Turnkey Modular Space and Portable Storage Solutions
The Mobile Mini Merger brought together WillScot’s leading modular space capabilities and Mobile Mini’s leading portable storage solutions to create an industry-leading specialty leasing platform. We benefit from complementary capabilities, a diverse customer base with over 85,000 customers across different end markets, and an unrivaled geographic footprint of approximately 275 branch locations and additional drop lots.
Our broad and complementary network serves the largest North American metropolitan areas with local teams who are experts in their respective markets. Our cost‑effective coverage model serves smaller customers at the local and regional level, while also addressing the needs of larger national customers looking for a full suite of high-quality services that can be provided on a consistent basis throughout North America. Since geographic proximity to customers can be a competitive advantage in the modular space and portable storage industry, we believe that our extensive branch network allows us to better serve existing customers and attract new customers.
We believe our extensive scale results in significant operational benefits, such as optimization of fleet yield and utilization, efficient capital allocation, superior service capabilities, and the ability to offer consistent "Ready to Work" solutions across all of our branch locations.
We deliver "Ready to Work" solutions through our growing offering of VAPS, such as the rental of steps, ramps, furniture packages, damage waivers, and other amenities. This thoughtfully curated portfolio of VAPS makes modular space and portable storage units more productive, comfortable, and secure for our customers and allows us to generate higher revenue per transaction and return on capital. These turnkey solutions offer customers flexible, low‑cost, capital efficient, and timely solutions to meet their space needs on an outsourced basis.
VAPS have been a substantial source of revenue growth in our NA Modular segment. We have been able to successfully drive a material increase in customer VAPS spend into our recently acquired businesses, which generates highly tangible revenue synergies. We believe our ability to drive VAPS growth following our historical acquisitions highlights the value proposition our VAPS provide to our customers. We expect to replicate a similar cross‑selling opportunity within Mobile Mini’s ground level offices.
Sophisticated Logistics And Service Capabilities
Building off of the largest branch network in the industry, we operate a sophisticated hybrid in-house and outsourced logistics and service infrastructure that we believe is highly differentiated from our competitors and enhances the value proposition we provide to customers. Precise scheduling of installations and removals, same-day delivery capabilities on certain products, and ability to mobilize large volumes of equipment in any geography serviced by our branch network are all unique capabilities that differentiate WillScot Mobile Mini, particularly among more demanding customer segments. We believe that continuing to further optimize our logistics and service capabilities through the deployment of technology is an opportunity for further cost efficiency and differentiation with our customers.
Investments in Technology Provide a Competitive Advantage Over Our Small and Midsize Competitors
We believe our technology serves as a primary differentiator over small and midsize competitors in local markets and initiatives underway to consolidate our operations onto our state of the art SAP enterprise resource planning platform will result in further efficiencies. Effective use of real‑time information allows us to monitor and optimize the utilization of our fleet, allocate our fleet to the highest demand markets, optimize pricing, and determine the best allocation of our capital to invest in fleet and branches.
We are able to dynamically price and approach customer accounts in a strategic and statistically informed manner. We also believe our ability to leverage this data helps us to increase our market share and effectively manage supply and demand dynamics in our fleet in order to maximize cash flow in all phases of the economic cycle, including identifying opportunities where underutilized lease fleet can be sold to generate cash.
Similarly, technology is continuing to develop related to our fleet to offer an enhanced experience for our customers. Unit tracking, electronic locking/security systems, and other customer‑facing technological benefits differentiate our fleet from competitors who have not invested in these capabilities. We believe we possess superior technology infrastructure relative to our competition and we intend to extend this advantage further by leveraging our infrastructure investments.
Diversified Revenue Base by End Market, Product, Service and Geography
We have established strong relationships with a diverse customer base, ranging from large national accounts to small local businesses. Our customers operate in a diversified set of end markets, including commercial and industrial, construction, education, energy and natural resources, government, and other end markets. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the top 50 combined customers for WillScot Mobile Mini accounted for less than 13% of pro forma revenues. We believe that the diversity of our customer end markets reduces our exposure to changes related to a given customer, shifts within an industry or geographic region, and end market industry seasonality, while also providing significant opportunities to grow our business. Furthermore, the nature of our products is such that their use is generally agnostic to industry. This flexibility insulates utilization from exposure to industry‑specific shocks, provided there are other needs and applications for these products within a reasonable distance. Accordingly, our business has been able to support front‑line workers and other essential businesses during the COVID‑19 crisis by providing temporary testing sites, treatment centers, exam rooms, hospital swing space, temperature screening checkpoints, office space to support social distancing, and storage for related supplies.
The following chart illustrates the breakdown of our customers and revenue by end markets, on a pro forma basis, as of December 31, 2020. In order to optimize the use of fleet assets across our branch network, we centrally manage fleet rebalancing across our end markets. This allows us to serve 15 distinct end markets in which no customer accounted for more than 2% of pro forma revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020.
|REVENUE MIX BY END MARKET||CUSTOMER CONCENTRATION|
Attractive Cost and Revenue Synergy Opportunities with the Ability to Leverage Best Practices Across Both Companies
We have a strong track record of integrations generating significant synergies with our acquisitions of Modular Space Holdings, Inc. ("ModSpace"), Onsite Space LLC ("Tyson"), and Acton Mobile Holdings LLC ("Acton"), driving $61.0 million in cumulative annual synergies achieved as of December 31, 2020, and an additional $10.2 million in remaining synergies expected to be realized in the future.
We anticipate approximately $50 million of annual cost savings opportunities from the combination with Mobile Mini from purchasing and procurement economies of scale and general and administrative expense savings, particularly with respect to the consolidation of corporate‑related functions and elimination of redundancies. Similar to the ModSpace integration, we expect to incur approximately $75 million of one‑time cash integration, capital investment, restructuring, lease impairment, and other related charges in the first two years post-closing to realize the annual recurring cost savings. These costs will be incurred to integrate and consolidate information technology systems and for other consulting costs, breakage costs for redundant and overlapping leased facilities, fleet relocation costs, severance, and other personnel costs. We anticipate approximately 80% of these cost savings to be realized in our run rate by the end of 2022. However, there is no guarantee that we will achieve these cost savings in the amount or in the time frame that we anticipate. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Mobile Mini Merger—We may be unable to successfully acquire and integrate new operations, including Mobile Mini and our conversion to its SAP enterprise resource planning system, which could cause our business to suffer."
Our Asset Base Provides Highly Attractive Asset-Level Returns with Long Useful Lives
The combination of long, predictable lease durations, long asset lives, and attractive unit economics underpins the compelling cash generation capability in our business model. As such, we have made significant investments in our lease fleet and consolidated several competitors. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our modular space and portable storage lease fleet consisted of over 121 million square feet of relocatable space, comprising over 157,000 units, and over 197,000 storage solutions containers and office units.
We believe we generate an attractive internal rate of return ("IRR") in our modular space portfolio driven by the long economic life of our fleet, exceeding 20 years on average, inclusive of any capital expenditure ("capex") required to maintain the fleet to its value maximizing earning potential. Adding VAPS to our modular units increases the IRR of those units over the 20+ year useful life of the asset. On average, the payback period of a modular unit is only 36 months including VAPS.
Similarly, we believe portable storage containers are able to generate a higher IRR over their 30‑year useful life. These units require even less maintenance capex and have an average payback period of only 30 months. We believe the stability of cash flows combined with strong economic returns make both modular space and portable storage containers highly attractive specialty rental asset classes, and our logistics and service capabilities and investments in technology further enhance the returns we can generate from these assets.
The following chart illustrates the breakdown of the net book value ("NBV") of our rental equipment between the various modular space product types, portable storage and VAPS as of December 31, 2020.
Our Business Generates Predictable Recurring Cash Flow Due to Our Long-Term Leases and Flexible Capex Requirements
Our recurring revenue, combined with our flexible capex requirements, efficient working capital, and tax profile, has allowed us to generate substantial free cash flow, both in periods of growth and economic downturn. The long term nature of our leases, with average lease durations in excess of 32 months as of December 31, 2020, produces strong operating income and predictable cash flow.
We exercise control and discretion over capex, due to the longevity and relative simplicity of our products, the ability to invest only where needed and when needed to meet demand, and the ability to sell excess fleet during lower utilization periods. During periods of economic stress, we have the ability to substantially reduce capex throughout the portfolio in order to maximize cash flow, resulting in a counter‑cyclical free cash flow profile. See discussion of “COVID‑19 impact on business" within our "Recent Developments" section below.
We primarily operate within the modular space, portable storage, and specialty containment markets. Our services also span across a variety of related sectors, including furniture rental, transportation and logistics, facilities rental services, and commercial real estate.
Modular Space Market
The modular space market is fragmented. Modular space units are non-residential structures designed to meet federal, provincial, state, and local building codes and, in most cases, are designed to be relocatable. Modular space units are constructed offsite, utilizing manufacturing techniques to prefabricate single or multi-story whole building solutions in deliverable modular sections. Units are typically constructed of steel, wood and conventional building materials and can be permanent or relocatable.
The modular space market has evolved in recent years as businesses and other potential customers increasingly recognize the value of modular space. The key growth drivers in this market are similar to portable storage and include:
Growing need and demand for space: driven by general economic activity, including gross domestic product growth, industrial production, mining and natural resources activity, non-residential construction, urbanization, public and education spending, and the scale and frequency of special events.
Shift from traditional fixed, on-site built space to modular space solutions: driven by several advantages as compared with fixed, on-site built space, including:
•Quick to install: the pre-fabrication of modular space units allows them to be put in place rapidly, providing potential long-term solutions to needs that may have materialized quickly.
•Flexibility: flexible assembly design allows modular space units to be built to suit a customer’s needs while offering customers the ability to adjust their space as their needs change.
•Cost effectiveness: modular space units provide a cost-effective solution for temporary and permanent space requirements and allow customers to improve returns on capital in their core business.
•Quality: the pre-fabrication of modular space units is based on a repeatable process in a controlled environment, resulting in more consistent quality.
•Mobility: modular space units can easily be disassembled, transported to a new location and re-assembled.
•Environmentally friendly: relocatable buildings promote the reuse of facilities, on an as-needed basis, by the occupants.
Portable Storage Market
The portable storage market, like the modular space market, is highly fragmented and remains primarily local in nature. Portable storage units are typically ground‑level entry, windowless storage containers made of heavy exterior metals for secure storage and water tightness. Portable storage units can be built to specification or can be remanufactured from existing storage products, such as ISO shipping containers. Remanufacturing typically involves cleaning, removing rust and dents, repairing floors and sidewalls, painting, and adding company logos or signs as well as our patented Tri‑Cam Locking System®.
Portable storage units continue to find new applications as business needs change and develop. Demand for portable storage is driven by a number of factors, including:
Versatility: portable storage units can be easily customized to suit customer specifications. While standard applications include locking double‑door systems to facilitate loading. However, custom entrances, such as rolling or sliding doors, can be added for personnel access.
Affordability: portable storage provides customers with a flexible and low‑cost storage alternative to permanent warehouse space and fixed‑site self‑storage.
Safety: units can be easily outfitted with fire and water‑resistant surfaces and materials. ISO containers are often wind and leak‑proof by virtue of their uses in logistics and shipping. Nearly all units are made from steel, which is a low‑cost, durable material.
Security: a variety of enhanced locking mechanisms are available for portable storage units, including our patented Tri‑Cam Locking System® and ContainerGuardLock®. These features offer additional protection for high‑value goods and inventory.
Convenience: portable storage units provide immediate ground‑level access for consumers and can be easily transported in large quantities via truck, rail, or cargo ship.
Aesthetics: portable storage units can be easily painted and decorated with company colors and logos and are less conspicuous than other portable storage alternatives such as van trailers.
Specialty Containment Market
This market is served by our Tank and Pump Solutions business. In the specialty containment sector, we service different markets: the industrial market, comprised mainly of chemical facilities and refineries, also known as the “downstream” market and, to a lesser extent, companies engaged in the exploration and production of oil and natural gas, or the “upstream” market. Additionally, we serve a diversified group of customers engaged in projects in the construction, pipeline, and mining markets. Downstream customers utilize tank and pump equipment and services to manage and remove liquid and solid waste generated by ongoing operating activities as well as turn‑around projects and large‑scale expansion projects. Upstream customers, who we estimate represent approximately 2% of pro forma rental revenues for the year ended December 31, 2020, tend to rent steel tanks to store and transport water and propellant used in well hydraulic fracturing. Other customers utilize a wide variety of our products differentiated by the type of project in which they are engaged.
Other Related Markets
In the normal course of providing our “Ready to Work” solutions, we perform services that are characteristic of activities in other industries. For example, we coordinate a broad network of third-party and in-house transportation and service resources to support the timely movement of our products to, as well as maintenance on, customer sites. Additionally, we design, source, lease, and maintain a broad offering of ancillary products, including furniture, which render our modular units immediately functional in support of our customers’ needs. We have developed networks of third‑party service providers that we coordinate to expand the breadth of capabilities that our customers can source through us. These third‑party‑managed services represent incremental revenue and margin opportunities for us and simplify the number of vendor touchpoints for our customers.
We also provide technical expertise and oversight for customers regarding building design and permitting, site preparation, and expansion or contraction of installed space based on changes in project requirements. Further, we have the capability to compete in adjacent markets, such as commercial and institutional housing, which have received less focus historically in the modular space market. We believe that this broad service capability differentiates us from other rental and business services providers and clearly differentiates us in the marketplace.
Although our competition varies significantly by local market, the modular space and portable storage industry is highly competitive and fragmented as a whole. We believe that participants in our industry compete on the basis of customer
relationships, product quality and availability, delivery speed, VAPS and service capabilities, pricing, and overall ease of doing business. We typically compete with one or more local providers in all of our markets, as well as with a limited number of national and regional companies.
Our competitors include lessors of storage units, mobile offices, van trailers, and other structures used for portable storage. As a provider of portable storage, we also compete with conventional fixed self-storage facilities. Some of our competitors may have greater market share in certain geographic regions. Significant modular space and portable storage competitors include McGrath RentCorp, PODS, Pac-Van, ATCO Structures & Logistics, BOXX Modular, and 1-800-PACK-RAT in North America, and Wernick Hire and Elliott in the UK. Numerous other regional and local companies compete in individual markets.
Our Tank and Pump Solutions business offers liquid and solid containment products. The liquid and solid containment industry is also highly fragmented, consisting principally of local providers, with a handful of regional and national providers. We compete based on factors including quality and breadth of equipment, technical applications expertise, knowledgeable and experienced sales and service personnel, on‑time delivery and proactive logistics management, geographic areas serviced, rental rates, and customer service. Our competitors include United Rentals, Rain For Rent, Adler Tanks, Sprint/Republic Services, and numerous other smaller competitors.
We believe the scalability of our branch network, corporate and shared services infrastructure, technology, and processes allows us to integrate acquisitions efficiently, realize cost savings, cross-sell VAPS, and improve the yield on acquired assets. As such, we manage an active acquisition pipeline and consider acquisitions to be an important component of our growth strategy.
Human Capital Management
As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 4,300 people worldwide, the majority of which are full time. Of these employees, approximately 3,800 are employed in North America, approximately 370 are employed in the UK, and approximately 100 are employed in Mexico. We have collective bargaining agreements in portions of our Mexico-based operations representing approximately 2% of our employees. Approximately 86% of employees work in our branch locations, while 14% serve in various corporate functions. We have not experienced a strike or significant work stoppage, and we consider our relations with the labor unions and employees to be good.
Our Chief Human Resources Officer along with other members of our executive leadership team develop and execute our human capital strategy. This includes attracting, acquiring, developing and engaging talent to deliver our strategy, designing employee compensation and benefits programs, and developing and integrating our inclusion and diversity ("I&D") initiatives.
We believe that our people are our most valuable asset. Our company values are lived through our employees, acknowledged by our vendors and aligned to the needs of our customers and communities. We are:
Dedicated to Health & Safety: We are subject to certain environmental, health and safety and other laws and regulations in countries, states or provinces, and localities in which we operate. Our health and safety programs are designed around global standards with appropriate variations addressing the multiple jurisdictions and regulations, specific hazards and unique working environments of our operations. We take responsibility for our own well-being and for those around us. Health and safety are first, last and everything in-between.
Committed to Inclusion & Diversity: We are stronger together when we celebrate our differences and strive for inclusiveness. We believe that a rich culture of inclusion and diversity enables us to create, develop and fully leverage the strengths of our workforce to exceed customer expectations and meet our growth objectives. We encourage collaboration and support the diverse voices and thoughts of our employees and communities.
Driven to Excellence: We measure success through our results and achievement of our goals. We continuously improve ourselves and our products and services in pursuit of maximizing shareholder value.
Trustworthy & Reliable: We hold ourselves accountable to do the right thing especially when nobody’s looking.
Devoted to Our Customers: We anticipate the growing needs of our customers and strive to exceed their expectations and make it easy to do business with us.
Community Focused: We actively engage in the communities we serve and deliver sustainable solutions.
Inclusion and Diversity
We encourage and empower the diverse voices and contributions of our stakeholders to drive increased market share and global value. In 2020, we established a role in our human resources department to lead our I&D efforts company-wide. Our developing inclusiveness resource teams are established to support our employees and provide opportunities for exposure, development, and contribution to the organization.
Environmental and Social Responsibility and Safety
We are committed to upholding the highest standards when it comes to our environmental and social responsibilities, as well as the safety of our employees and our business partners, which we believe serves as a competitive advantage. We are a sustainable organization with long-lived, reusable and renewable assets that are constantly redeployed to customers with minimal residual environmental impact.
Our policies and practices are evident of our commitment to environmental responsibility and accountability and respect for human rights and fair labor standards. We have a company-wide focus on safety and have implemented numerous measures to promote workplace safety. Customers are increasingly focused on safety records in their sourcing decisions due to increased regulations to report all incidents that occur at their sites and the costs associated with such incidents. Our consolidated Total Recordable Incident Rate ("TRIR") remains well below 1.0, demonstrating what we believe to be exceptional performance in the area of workplace safety. TRIR is an important safety metric required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA").
COVID-19 Safety Protocols
Our business, along with the rest of the world, faced unprecedented challenges in 2020 due to the impact of COVID-19. We remained dedicated to protecting the health and safety of our employees, vendors, and customers and adjusted our business to meet various country, state, and local requirements. We are considered an “essential business” and our employees are considered “essential workers”. We have continued to service our customers throughout the pandemic, while implementing robust health and safety protocols to protect our employees and customers, and we believe these robust protocols have differentiated us as a sophisticated partner in the eyes of our more demanding customer segments.
We follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and/or applicable country, state and local guidelines at the locations where we operate. To comply with public health guidance and reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission, employees are required, prior to commencing work at our facilities and offices each day, to check their temperature and complete a daily symptom certification that is documented and reviewed by our COVID-19 team members. We provide masks and hand sanitizer to our employees, as well as require adherence to appropriate social distancing practices and regularly recurring cleaning/sanitization protocols at our locations. COVID-19 testing for employees is covered by insurance and we actively track key COVID-19 metrics. We have also deployed robust remote-work capabilities and technology across the workforce providing employees flexibility to operate when not required to be on-site at a company location.
Health & Wellness
The health and wellness of our employees is an extremely important facet of our workplace environment. We offer several health and wellness incentives to our employees. Our employee assistance program ("EAP") provides a variety of services to employees in need and was especially important during 2020 as COVID-19 impacted our workforce in different ways. We responded to the pandemic by continuing to prioritize employee health and safety as we conducted our business.
We believe that engaged employees are vital to continued business success. As such, we provide consistent touchpoints with employees to ensure that we have a strong understanding of employee sentiment. We have creative programming throughout the year designed to provide engagement opportunities for our workforce that unifies us, even as physical distance separates us. These touchpoints became increasingly more important in 2020 due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Talent and Recruitment
We work diligently to attract top talent from a variety of sources to meet the current and future demands of our business. We have a strong employee value proposition that leverages our collaborative working environment, shared commitment to our company values. We strive to balance the recruitment of best-in-class external resources with the development and advancement of our in-house talent to foster a rich diversity of skills and perspectives, which we believe is an important source of competitive advantage.
Community and Partnering
We are proud to make a difference in places that we live and work. We strive to help our communities and hometowns by giving our time and talent to improve our surroundings. Our employees are encouraged to utilize up to 16 hours of paid time off to volunteer in their local communities. We have numerous partnerships with charitable organizations across the country that allow our employees to get involved and give back. Many of our senior leaders serve on boards of non-profit organizations. In 2020, we and our employees generously gave over $420,000 to a variety of causes that improve and advance our local communities.
Total Rewards or Pay Equity
We provide market competitive compensation and benefit packages to our employees. Beyond base compensation, we also offer short and long-term incentive programs, 401(k) with employee matching opportunities, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave and tuition reimbursement among others (programs may vary by country/region, job level, and time with the organization). We obtain annual employee feedback on the
benefits we offer to ensure that we continue to offer competitive packages that appeal to top talent and allow us to recruit and retain our human capital.
We operate primarily under the WillScot and Mobile Mini brands. We protect our products and services through the use of trademarks and patents, none of which are individually material to our business. Our trademarks and patents are registered or pending applications for registrations in the US Patent and Trademark Office and various non‑US jurisdictions. On our Modular fleet, we maintain a patent for the design of our Flex units in the US and other patents in the US and non-US jurisdictions concerning various assembly and panel components. We believe that Flex represents the most innovative and versatile purpose built modular space in the industry, which has helped us expand commercially into new end markets. On our Storage fleet, we have patented our proprietary Tri‑Cam Locking System®, ContainerGuardLock® and other continued improvements in locking technology in the markets in which we operate, as well as in Europe and China. We believe that continued innovation differentiates WillScot Mobile Mini with our customers and represents a source of long-term competitive advantage.
Mobile Mini Merger
On July 1, 2020, we closed the Merger at which time Mobile Mini became a wholly-owned subsidiary of WillScot. Concurrent with the closing of the Merger, we changed our name to WillScot Mobile Mini Holdings Corp. We believe that the Merger is resulting in strategic and financial benefits by combining the two industry leaders in the complementary modular space and portable storage solutions markets. We are executing the integration of the two companies' operating and financial systems, with a significant portion of these efforts being focused currently on the conversion of the combined company onto a single enterprise resource planning system, which is expected to take place in the first half of 2021.
Following the Merger, we modified our management structure and expanded from two reporting segments to four reporting segments: NA Modular, NA Storage, UK Storage, and Tank and Pump. Prior to the Merger, WillScot had two reporting segments, US Modular and Other North America Modular. These two segments were combined to create the new NA Modular segment, which represents the legacy WillScot operations. The other new segments, NA Storage, UK Storage, and Tank and Pump align to the legacy operations and segments reported by Mobile Mini. The new reporting segments are aligned with how we operate and analyze our business results.
In anticipation of the Merger, on June 15, 2020, WillScot completed a private offering of $650.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.125% senior secured notes due 2025 (the “2025 Secured Notes”). The offering proceeds from the 2025 Secured Notes of $650.0 million were used to repay the 7.875% senior secured notes due 2022 (the “2022 Secured Notes”), repay Mobile Mini senior notes and pay certain fees and expenses related to the Merger and financing transactions.
On July 1, 2020, in connection with the completion of the Merger, we entered into a new asset-based credit agreement (the "2020 ABL Facility"), that provides for revolving credit facilities in the aggregate principal amount of up to $2.4 billion. Proceeds from the 2020 ABL Facility of $1.5 billion were used to repay the WillScot 2017 ABL facility, the Mobile Mini line of credit, and fees and expenses related to the Merger and financing transactions. The 2020 ABL Facility matures July 1, 2025.
On August 11, 2020, we redeemed $49.0 million of our 6.875% senior secured notes (the “2023 Secured Notes”) at a redemption price of 103.0% plus accrued and unpaid interest. This repayment was funded by the 2020 ABL facility.
On August 25, 2020, we completed a private offering of $500.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.625% senior secured notes due 2028 (the “2028 Secured Notes”). Proceeds from the 2028 Secured Notes were used to repay the $441.0 million remaining outstanding principal of the 2023 Secured Notes at a redemption price of 103.438% plus accrued and unpaid interest.
On June 30, 2020, as contemplated by the Merger Agreement, Sapphire Holding S.à r.l. (“Sapphire Holdings”), our largest shareholder, which is controlled by TDR Capital LLP (“TDR Capital”), exchanged (the “Sapphire Exchange”) each of its shares of common stock of Williams Scotsman Holdings Corp. ("Holdings"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, pursuant to an existing exchange agreement between WillScot and Sapphire Holdings, for 1.3261 shares of newly issued WillScot Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Class A Common Stock”). As a result of the Sapphire Exchange, all issued and outstanding shares of WillScot’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, were automatically canceled for no consideration and the existing exchange agreement was automatically terminated. As a result of the Sapphire Exchange, Sapphire Holdings received 10,641,182 shares of Class A Common Stock.
In connection with the Merger, on July 1, 2020, WillScot issued 106,426,722 shares of its Class A Common Stock in exchange for the outstanding shares of common stock of Mobile Mini, par value $0.01 per share, and subsequently filed an amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which reclassified all outstanding shares of the Class A Common Stock and converted such shares into shares of Common Stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, of WillScot Mobile Mini.
COVID‑19 impact on business
Since the outbreak of COVID‑19 was designated as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (the “WHO”) in March 2020, our operations have generally continued to operate normally, albeit at lower activity levels in the second and third quarters of 2020, and with additional safety protocols in place as we have been considered an essential business in most jurisdictions. However, there have been significant changes to the global economic situation as a consequence of the COVID‑19 pandemic. The global pandemic has resulted in significant global social and business disruption, and in response we have modified the way we communicate and conduct business with our customers, suppliers, and employees.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, financial results for our operations were impacted by the COVID‑19 pandemic as we experienced reduced demand, particularly in the second and third quarters of the year. During this time, a portion of new project deliveries from our customers were either cancelled or delayed as a result of the COVID‑19 pandemic, and it remains unclear as to what extent such disruptions may impact our financial results in the future. On a pro forma basis, our deliveries were down 25% in the second quarter year over year and 13% in the third quarter year over year due to reduced demand primarily attributable to the current global economic situation as a consequence of the COVID‑19 pandemic. However, these impacts moderated in the fourth quarter and demand rebounded with deliveries up 2% year over year in the fourth quarter and up 0.3% sequentially from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2020. Furthermore, reduced delivery activity was substantially offset by reduced lease terminations which were approximately 19% below 2019 levels in the second and third quarters which helped stabilize our units on rent. Though recent demand has improved, the reduced delivery demand during the the second and third quarters of 2020 caused us to reduce variable costs and capital spending during those periods. These actions contributed to expanded profitability and cash flow in these periods, and activity levels and costs began to normalize heading into the fourth quarter. Despite this unprecedented demand shock, our long lease durations, our predictable cash inflows, and the fact that the majority of our gross profit in any given period is from units already out on rent, we believe we have visibility into our future cash flows and are able to plan ahead to adjust for varying demand levels.
The following summarizes many of the key actions we have taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic:
Employee safety and health
We have implemented various employee safety measures to contain the spread of COVID‑19, including domestic and international travel restrictions, the promotion of social distancing and work‑from‑home practices, extensive cleaning protocols, daily symptom assessments, and enhanced use of personal protective equipment such as masks. We continue to closely monitor all guidance provided by applicable government agencies to ensure the safety of our employees, vendors, and customers as our top priority.
Sales and leasing operations
We continue to monitor government restrictions, which vary significantly across our geographic markets. As a result of the shelter‑in‑place orders and increased social distancing measures, some of our markets, such as special events and sports and entertainment, have experienced sustained reductions in demand for new projects. Other sectors, such as health care, have experienced increased demand, while other sectors such as construction have remained active but with varying degrees of project disruption, some of which are quite significant. We are also responding to demand across our end markets from customers in need of additional office space to facilitate social distancing. As we serve many critical sectors of the economy, we will continue to help support customers who remain operational, as well as those who are actively engaged in the COVID-19 response. We believe that our branch locations are considered essential businesses in most jurisdictions and as such have continued to operate normally with the aforementioned safety protocols in place, while our customer service and sales teams are working closely with customers to meet current demand.
Our website address is www.willscotmobilemini.com. We make available, free of charge through our website, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) as soon as reasonably practicable after such documents are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The SEC maintains an internet website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding WillScot Mobile Mini.
Regulatory and Environmental Compliance
We are subject to certain environmental, transportation, anti-corruption, import control, health and safety, and other laws and regulations in countries, states or provinces, and localities in which we operate. We incur significant costs in our business to comply with these laws and regulations. However, from time to time we may be subject to additional costs and
penalties as a result of non-compliance. The discovery of currently unknown matters or conditions, new laws and regulations, or different enforcement or interpretation of existing laws and regulations could materially harm our business or operations in the future.
We are subject to laws and regulations that govern and impose liability for activities that may have adverse environmental effects, including discharges into air and water and handling and disposal of hazardous substances and waste. As of the date of this filing, no environmental matter has been material to our operations. Based on our management’s assessment, we believe that any environmental matters relating to us of which we are currently aware will not be material to our overall business or financial condition.
The jurisdictions in which we operate are also subject to anti-bribery laws and regulations, such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”). These regulations prevent companies and their officers, employees, and agents from making payments to officials and public entities of foreign countries to facilitate obtaining new contracts. Violations of these laws and regulations may result in criminal sanctions and significant monetary penalties.
Certain of our units are subject to regulation in certain states under motor vehicle and similar registrations and certificate of title statutes. Management believes that the Company has complied, in all material respects, with all motor vehicle registration and similar certificate of title statutes in states where such statutes clearly apply to modular space units. We have not taken actions under such statutes in states where we have determined that such statutes do not apply to modular space units. However, in certain states, the applicability of such statutes to modular space units is not clear beyond doubt. If additional registration and related requirements are deemed to be necessary in such states or if the laws in such states or other states were to change to require us to comply with such requirements, we could be subject to additional costs, fees, and taxes as well as administrative burdens in order to comply with such statutes and requirements. Management does not believe that the effect of such compliance will be material to our business or financial condition.
ITEM 1A. Risk Factors
Risks Relating to Our Business
We may be unable to successfully acquire and integrate new operations, including Mobile Mini and our conversion to its enterprise resource planning system, which could cause our business to suffer.
We may be unable to successfully make strategic acquisitions or integrate acquired businesses or assets into our operations, including Mobile Mini, for various reasons. We completed the Mobile Mini Merger on July 1, 2020. While the Mobile Mini integration is underway, we may explore other acquisitions in the future that meet our strategic growth plans.
In particular, we are engaged in a conversion of the Company’s legacy enterprise resource planning system ("ERP") to Mobile Mini’s ERP. The ERP is designed to accurately maintain the company’s books and records and provide information important to the operation of the business to the company’s management team. The Company’s ERP conversion will continue to require significant investment of human and financial resources. In implementing the ERP, we may experience significant delays, increased costs and other difficulties. Any significant disruption or deficiency in the design and implementation of the ERP could adversely affect our ability to process orders, deliver units, send invoices and track payments, fulfill contractual obligations or otherwise operate our business. While we have invested significant resources in planning and project management, significant implementation issues may arise which could significantly impact our operations and financial performance.
Additionally, we cannot predict if or when acquisitions will be completed, and we may face significant competition for acquisition targets. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including the following:
•difficulties in integrating the operations, technologies, products and personnel of the acquired companies;
•diversion of management’s attention from normal daily operations of the business;
•loss of key employees;
•difficulties in entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience and where our competitors in such markets have stronger market positions;
•difficulties in complying with regulations, such as environmental regulations, and managing risks related to an acquired business;
•an inability to timely obtain financing, including any amendments required to existing financing agreements;
•an inability to implement uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies;
•undiscovered and unknown problems, defects, liabilities or other issues related to any acquisition that become known to us only after the acquisition, particularly relating to rental equipment on lease that are unavailable for inspection during the diligence process; and
•loss of key customers, suppliers or employees.
In connection with acquisitions, we may assume liabilities or acquire damaged assets, some of which may be unknown to us at the time of such acquisitions.
We assess the condition and regulatory certification of an acquired fleet as part of our acquisition due diligence. In some cases, fleet condition or regulatory certification may be difficult to determine due to the fleet being on lease at the time of acquisition and/or inadequate certification records. Fleet acquisitions may therefore result in a rectification cost that we may not have factored into the acquisition price, impacting deployability and ultimate profitability of the fleet we acquired.
We must continue to take actions to realize the combined cost synergies that we forecast for the acquisition. We may incur more costs than we anticipated to achieve the forecast synergies (thus reducing the net benefit of the cost synergies), realize synergies later than we expected or fail altogether to achieve a portion of the cost savings we anticipated. Any of these events could cause reductions in our earnings per share, impact our ability to borrow funds under our credit facility, decrease or delay the accretive effect of the acquisitions that we anticipated and negatively impact our stock price.
Acquisitions are inherently risky, and we cannot provide assurance that the Mobile Mini Merger, or any future acquisitions will be successful or will not materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. If we do not manage new markets effectively, some of our new branches and acquisitions may lose money or fail, and we may have to close unprofitable branches. Closing a branch in such circumstances would likely result in additional expenses that would cause our operating results to suffer. To manage growth successfully, we will need to continue to identify additional qualified managers and employees to integrate acquisitions within our established operating, financial and other internal procedures and controls. We will also need to effectively motivate, train and manage our employees. Failure to successfully integrate recent and future acquisitions and new branches into existing operations could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Global or local economic movements could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our business, which operates in the US, Canada, Mexico and the UK, may be negatively impacted by economic movements or downturns in the local markets in which we operate or global markets generally. These adverse economic conditions may reduce commercial activity, cause disruption and extreme volatility in global financial markets and increase rates of default and bankruptcy. Reduced commercial activity has historically resulted in reduced demand for our products and services. For example, reduced commercial activity in the construction, energy and natural resources sectors in certain markets in which we operate, particularly the US and Canada, has negatively impacted our business in the past. Disruptions in financial markets could negatively impact the ability of our customers to pay their obligations to us in a timely manner and increase our counterparty risk. If economic conditions worsen, we may face reduced demand and an increase, relative to historical levels, in the time it takes to receive customer payments. If we are not able to adjust our business in a timely and effective manner to changing economic conditions, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
Moreover, the level of demand for our products and services is sensitive to the level of demand within various sectors, particularly the commercial and industrial, construction, education, energy and natural resources, and government end markets. Each of these sectors is influenced not only by the state of the general global economy, but also by a number of more specific factors as well. For example, a decline in global or local energy prices may materially adversely affect demand for modular buildings within the energy and resources sector. The levels of activity in these sectors and geographic regions may also be cyclical, and we may not be able to predict the timing, extent or duration of the activity cycles in the markets in which we or our key customers operate. A decline or slowed growth in any of these sectors or geographic regions could result in reduced demand for our products and services, which may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations are exposed to operational, economic, political and regulatory risks.
We operate in the US, Canada, Mexico and the UK. For the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 89.8%, 5.8%, 1.0%, and 3.4% of our revenue was generated in the US, Canada, Mexico and the UK, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 76.9%, 16.2%, 3.4%, and 3.5% of our revenue was derived from our NA Modular Solutions business, NA Storage Solutions business, UK Storage Solutions business and Tank and Pump Solutions business, respectively.
Our operations in any of these countries could be affected by foreign and domestic economic, political and regulatory risks, including the following:
•regulatory requirements that are subject to change and that could restrict our ability to assemble, lease or sell products;
•inflation, recession, and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange and interest rates;
•trade protection measures, including increased duties and taxes and import or export licensing requirements;
•compliance with applicable antitrust and other regulatory rules and regulations relating to potential acquisitions;
•different local product preferences and product requirements;
•pressures on management time and attention due to the complexities of overseeing multi-national operations;
•challenges in maintaining staffing;
•different labor regulations and the potential impact of collective bargaining;
•potentially adverse consequences from changes in, or interpretations of, tax laws;
•political and economic instability;
•enforcement of remedies in various jurisdictions;
•the risk that the business partners upon whom we depend for technical assistance will not perform as expected;
•compliance with applicable export control laws and economic sanctions laws and regulations;
•price controls and ownership regulations;
•obstacles to the repatriation of earnings and cash;
•differences in business practices that may result in violation of company policies, including, but not limited to, bribery and collusive practices; and
•reduced protection for intellectual property in some countries.
These and other risks may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations may be adversely impacted as a result of COVID‑19.
As a result of the ongoing global pandemic, governments around the world have implemented quarantines and significant restrictions on travel as well as work restrictions that prohibit many employees from going to work. As millions of cases of COVID‑19 have been confirmed around the world, we expect COVID‑19 to continue to impact general commercial activity related to our supply chain and customer base, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or result of operations. To the extent that the COVID‑19 pandemic continues, worsens, or vaccines are delayed, governments may impose additional restrictions or additional governments may impose restrictions. COVID‑19 and those restrictions could result in additional businesses being shut down, additional work restrictions and supply chains being interrupted, slowed, or rendered inoperable. As a result, it may be challenging to obtain and process raw materials to support our business needs, we may need to recognize material charges in future periods for impairments of our rental equipment, property, plant, and equipment and/or intangible assets. Furthermore, our employees, suppliers or customers could become ill, quarantined or otherwise unable to work and/or travel due to health reasons or governmental restrictions. The COVID‑19 global pandemic has affected and may continue to affect our industry and the industries in which our customers operate, and there may be an adverse impact on customer demand for our rentals. We also have been, and will be, adversely impacted by project delays, early returns of equipment on rent with customers and payment delay, or non‑payment, by customers who are significantly impacted by COVID‑19. If our customers’ businesses continue to be affected, they might delay or reduce purchases from or payments to us, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition, increased volatility and diminished expectations for the global economy, coupled with the prospect of decreased business and consumer confidence and increased unemployment resulting from the COVID‑19 pandemic, may precipitate an economic slowdown and recession. If the economic climate deteriorates, our ability to continue to grow our business organically or through additional acquisitions and integration of acquired businesses, as well as the financial condition of customers, suppliers and lenders, could be adversely affected, resulting in a negative impact on the business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of our company.
The situation surrounding COVID-19 remains fluid. A delay in wide distribution of a vaccine, or a lack of public acceptance of a vaccine, could lead people to continue to self-isolate and not participate in the economy at pre-pandemic levels for a prolonged period of time. Further, even if a vaccine is widely distributed and accepted, there can be no assurance that the vaccine will ultimately be successful in limiting or stopping the spread of COVID-19. Therefore, it remains difficult to predict the potential impact of the virus on our results of operations and financial position. The potential effects of COVID‑19 also could impact many of our risk factors, as discussed herein, including, but not limited to our exposure to operational, economic, political and regulatory risks; risks related to global or local economic movements; changes in trade policies; and labor disruptions. However, given the evolving health, economic, social, and governmental environments, the potential impact that COVID‑19 could have on our risk factors that are further described herein remains uncertain. Any future pandemics could similarly negatively impact our operations and financial results.
Any failure of our management information systems could disrupt our business operations both in the field and back office, which could result in decreased lease or sale revenue and increase overhead costs.
We rely heavily on information systems across our operations. We also utilize third-party cloud providers to host certain of our applications and to store data. Our ability to effectively manage our business depends significantly on the reliability and capacity of these systems. The failure of our management information systems to perform as anticipated could damage our reputation with our customers, disrupt our business or result in, among other things, decreased lease and sales revenue and increased overhead costs. Any such failure could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the delay or failure to implement information system upgrades and new systems effectively could disrupt our business, distract management’s focus and attention from business operations and growth initiatives and increase our implementation and operating costs, any of which could materially adversely affect our operations and operating results.
We believe we have implemented appropriate measures to mitigate potential risks; however, like other companies, our information technology systems may be vulnerable to a variety of interruptions due to our own error or events beyond our control. The measures that we employ to protect our systems may not detect or prevent cybersecurity breaches, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, telecommunication failures, computer viruses, hackers, phishing attacks, and other security issues. We have previously been the target of an attempted cyber-attack and have from time to time experienced threats to our data
and systems, computer virus attacks and phishing attempts, and we may be subject to breaches of the information systems that we use. We have not experienced a material cybersecurity breach. We have programs in place that are intended to detect, contain and respond to data security incidents and that provide employee awareness training regarding phishing, malware, and other cyber risks to protect against cyber risks and security breaches. However, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. In addition, because our systems contain information about individuals and other businesses, the failure to maintain the security of the data we hold, whether the result of our own error or the malfeasance or errors of others, could harm our reputation or give rise to legal liabilities leading to lower revenue, increased costs, regulatory sanctions and other potential material adverse effects on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Effective management of our fleet is vital to our business, and our failure to properly safeguard, design, manufacture, repair and maintain our fleet could harm our business and reduce our operating results and cash flows.
Our modular space and portable storage units have long economic lives and managing our fleet is a critical element to our leasing business. Rental equipment asset management requires designing and building long-lived products that anticipate customer needs and changes in legislation, regulations, building codes and local permitting in the various markets in which we operate. In addition, we must cost-effectively maintain and repair our fleet to maximize the economic life of the products and the proceeds we receive from product sales. As the needs of our customers change, we may incur costs to relocate or retrofit our assets to better meet shifts in demand. If the distribution of our assets is not aligned with regional demand, we may be unable to take advantage of sales and leasing opportunities in certain regions, despite excess inventory in other regions. If we are not able to successfully manage our lease assets, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
If we do not appropriately manage the design, manufacture, repair and maintenance of our product fleet, or if we delay or defer such repair or maintenance or suffer unexpected losses of rental equipment due to theft or obsolescence, we may be required to incur impairment charges for equipment that is beyond economic repair or incur significant capex to acquire new rental equipment to serve demand. These failures may also result in personal injury or property damage claims, including claims based on poor indoor air quality and termination of leases or contracts by customers. Costs of contract performance, potential litigation and profits lost from termination could materially adversely affect our future operating results and cash flows.
Trade policies and changes in trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs, their enforcement and downstream consequences, may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and outlook.
Tariffs and/or other developments with respect to trade policies, trade agreements and government regulations may materially, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, the US government has imposed tariffs on steel, aluminum and lumber imports from certain countries, which could result in increased costs to us for these materials. Without limitation, (i) tariffs currently in place and (ii) the imposition by the federal government of new tariffs on imports to the US could materially increase (a) the cost of our products that we are offering for sale or lease, (b) the cost of certain products that we source from foreign manufacturers, and (c) the cost of certain raw materials or products that we utilize. We may not be able to pass such increased costs on to our customers, and we may not be able to secure sources of certain products and materials that are not subject to tariffs on a timely basis. Although we actively monitor our procurement policies and practices to avoid undue reliance on foreign-sourced goods subject to tariffs, when practicable, such developments may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face significant competition in the modular space, portable storage and tank and pump industries. Such competition may result in pricing pressure or an inability to maintain or grow our market share. If we are unable to compete successfully, we could lose customers and our revenue and profitability could decline.
Although our competition varies significantly by market, the modular space, portable storage, and the tank and pump solutions industries are highly competitive, in general, and the portable storage and tank and pump solutions industries are highly fragmented. We compete on the basis of a number of factors, including customer relationships, product quality and availability, delivery speed, VAPS and service capabilities, pricing, and overall ease of doing business. We may experience pricing pressures in our operations as some of our competitors seek to obtain market share by reducing prices, and we may face reduced demand for our products and services if our competitors are able to provide new or innovative products or services that better appeal to customers. In most of our end markets, we face competition from national, regional and local companies who have an established market position in the specific service area, and we expect to encounter similar competition in any new markets that we may enter. In certain markets, some of our competitors may have greater market share, less debt, greater pricing flexibility, more attractive product or service offerings, better brand recognition or superior marketing and financial resources. Increased competition could result in lower profit margins, substantial pricing pressure and reduced market share. Price competition, together with other forms of competition, may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we do not manage our credit risk effectively, collect on our accounts receivable, or recover our rental equipment from our customers, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We perform credit evaluation procedures on our customers on each transaction and require security deposits or other forms of security from our customers when we identify a significant credit risk. Failure to manage our credit risk and receive timely payments on our customer accounts receivable may result in the write-off of customer receivables and loss of units if we are unable to recover our rental equipment from our customers’ sites. If we are not able to manage credit risk, or if a large number of customers should have financial difficulties at the same time, our credit and rental equipment losses would increase above historical levels. If this should occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
We intend to continue to launch operations into new geographic markets and/or add other business unit operations in existing markets, which may be costly and may not be successful.
WillScot and Mobile Mini have in the past, and we intend in the future, to expand our Modular Space, Storage Solutions and Tank and Pump Solutions operations into new geographic markets in North America. This expansion could require financial resources that would not therefore be available for other aspects of our business. In addition, this expansion could require the time and attention of management, leaving less time to focus on existing business. If we fail to manage the risks inherent in our geographic expansion, we could incur capital and operating costs without any related increase in revenue, which would harm our operating results.
Changes in state building codes could adversely impact our ability to remarket our buildings, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Building codes are generally reviewed, debated and, in certain cases, modified on a national level every three years as an ongoing effort to keep the regulations current and improve the life, safety and welfare of the building’s occupants. All aspects of a given code are subject to change, including, but not limited to, such items as structural specifications for earthquake safety, energy efficiency and environmental standards, fire and life safety, transportation, lighting and noise limits. On occasion, state agencies have undertaken studies of indoor air quality and noise levels with a focus on permanent and modular classrooms. This process leads to a systematic change that requires engagement in the process and recognition that past methods will not always be accepted. New modular construction is very similar to conventional construction where newer codes and regulations generally increase cost. New governmental regulations may increase our costs to acquire new rental equipment, as well as increase our costs to refurbish existing equipment.
Compliance with building codes and regulations entails risk as state and local government authorities do not necessarily interpret building codes and regulations in a consistent manner, particularly where applicable regulations may be unclear and subject to interpretation. These regulations often provide broad discretion to governmental authorities that oversee these matters, which can result in unanticipated delays or increases in the cost of compliance in particular markets. The construction and modular industries have developed many “best practices” which are constantly evolving. Some of our peers and competitors may adopt practices that are more or less stringent than ours. When, and if, regulators clarify regulatory standards, the effect of the clarification may be to impose rules on our business and practices retroactively, at which time we may not be in compliance with such regulations and we may be required to incur costly remediation. If we are unable to pass these increased costs on to our customers, our business, financial condition, operating cash flows and results of operations could be negatively impacted.
Our operations face foreign currency exchange rate exposure, which may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We hold assets, incur liabilities, earn revenue and pay expenses in certain currencies other than the US Dollar, primarily the Canadian Dollar, the Mexican Peso and the British Pound. Our consolidated financial results are denominated in US Dollars, and therefore, during times of a strengthening US Dollar, our reported revenue in non-US Dollar jurisdictions will be reduced because the local currency will translate into fewer US Dollars. Revenue and expenses are translated into US Dollars at the average exchange rate for the period. In addition, the assets and liabilities of our non-US Dollar subsidiaries are translated into US Dollars at the exchange rates in effect on the balance sheet date. Foreign currency exchange adjustments arising from certain intercompany obligations with and between our domestic companies and our foreign subsidiaries are marked-to-market and recorded as a non-cash loss or gain in each of our financial periods in our consolidated statements of operations. Accordingly, changes in currency exchange rates will cause our foreign currency translation adjustment in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) to fluctuate. In addition, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates will impact the amount of US Dollars we receive when we repatriate funds from our non-US Dollar operations.
Fluctuations in interest rates and commodity prices may also materially adversely affect our revenues, results of operations and cash flows.
Although we have converted a portion of our senior secured revolving credit facility borrowings into fixed-rate debt through interest rate swaps, a significant portion of our borrowings under the facility remain variable rate debt. Fluctuations in interest rates may negatively impact the amount of interest payments, as well as our ability to refinance portions of our existing debt in the future at attractive interest rates. In addition, certain of our end markets, as well as portions of our cost structure,
such as transportation costs, are sensitive to changes in commodity prices, which can impact both demand for and profitability of our services. These changes could impact our future earnings and cash flows, assuming other factors are held constant.
Significant increases in raw material and labor costs could increase our operating costs significantly and harm our profitability.
We incur labor costs and purchase raw materials, including steel, lumber, siding and roofing, paint, glass, fuel and other products to perform periodic repairs, modifications and refurbishments to maintain physical conditions of our units and in connection with get-ready, delivery and installation of our units. The volume, timing and mix of such work may vary quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year. Generally, increases in labor and raw material costs will increase the acquisition costs of new units and also increase the repair and maintenance costs of our fleet. We also maintain a truck fleet to deliver units to and return units from our customers, the cost of which is sensitive to maintenance and fuel costs and rental rates on leased equipment. During periods of rising prices for labor or raw materials, and in particular, when the prices increase rapidly or to levels significantly higher than normal, we may incur significant increases in our acquisition costs for new units and higher operating costs that we may not be able to recoup from customers through changes in pricing, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. If raw material prices decline significantly, we may have to write down our raw materials inventory values. If this happens, our results of operations and financial condition could decline.
Fluctuations in fuel costs or oil prices, a reduction in fuel supplies, or a sustained decline in oil prices may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In connection with our business, to better serve our customers and limit our capex, we often move our fleet from branch to branch. In addition, the majority of our customers arrange for delivery and pickup of our units through us. Accordingly, we could be materially adversely affected by significant increases in fuel prices that result in higher costs to us for transporting equipment. In the event of fuel and trucking cost increases, we may not be able to promptly raise our prices to make up for increased costs. A significant or prolonged price fluctuation or disruption of fuel supplies could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, oil prices have been volatile and are subject to fluctuations in response to changes in supply and demand, market uncertainty and a variety of additional factors that are beyond our control. If oil prices remain volatile for an extended period of time or there is a sustained decline in demand for oil, demand for our Tank and Pump Solutions products from refineries and companies engaged in the exploration and production of oil and natural gas could be adversely impacted, which would in turn have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Third parties may fail to manufacture or provide necessary components for our products properly or in a timely manner.
We are often dependent on third parties to manufacture or supply components for our products. We typically do not enter into long-term contracts with third-party suppliers. We may experience supply problems as a result of financial or operating difficulties or the failure or consolidation of our suppliers. We may also experience supply problems as a result of shortages and discontinuations resulting from product obsolescence or other shortages or allocations by suppliers. Unfavorable economic conditions may also adversely affect our suppliers or the terms on which we purchase products. In the future, we may not be able to negotiate arrangements with third parties to secure products that we require in sufficient quantities or on reasonable terms. If we cannot negotiate arrangements with third parties to produce our products or if the third parties fail to produce our products to our specifications or in a timely manner, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
We are subject to risks associated with labor relations, labor costs and labor disruptions.
We are subject to the costs and risks generally associated with labor disputes and organizing activities related to unionized labor. From time to time, strikes, public demonstrations or other coordinated actions and publicity may disrupt our operations. We may incur increased legal costs and indirect labor costs as a result of contractual disputes, negotiations or other labor-related disruptions. We have collective bargaining agreements with employees in portions of our Mexico-based operations, which accounted for approximately 2.0% of our total employees as of December 31, 2020. These operations may be more highly affected by labor force activities than others, and all collective bargaining agreements must be renegotiated annually. Other locations may also face organizing activities or effects. Labor organizing activities could result in additional employees becoming unionized. Furthermore, collective bargaining agreements may limit our ability to reduce the size of work forces during an economic downturn, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. We believe a unionized workforce outside of Mexico would generally increase our operating costs, divert attention of management from servicing customers and increase the risk of work stoppages, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Failure to retain key personnel could impede our ability to execute our business plan and growth strategy.
Our ability to profitably execute our business plan depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain qualified personnel. Certain of our key executives, managers and employees have knowledge and an understanding of our business and our industry, and/or have developed meaningful customer relationships, that cannot be duplicated readily. Our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel is dependent on, among other things, the availability of qualified personnel and our ability to provide a competitive compensation package, including the implementation of adequate drivers of retention and rewards
based on performance, and work environment. Failure to retain qualified key personnel may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. The departure of any key personnel and our inability to enforce non-competition agreements could have a negative impact on our business.
Moreover, labor shortages, the inability to hire or retain qualified employees and increased labor costs could have a material adverse effect on our ability to control expenses and efficiently conduct our operations. We may not be able to continue to hire and retain the sufficiently skilled labor force necessary to operate efficiently and to support our operating strategies. Labor expenses could also increase as a result of continuing shortages in the supply of personnel.
If we determine that our goodwill, intangible assets, and indefinite-life intangible assets have become impaired, we may incur impairment charges, which may adversely impact our operating results.
We have a substantial amount of goodwill and indefinite-life intangible assets (trade names), which represents the excess of the total purchase price of our acquisitions over the fair value of the assets acquired, and other intangible assets. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $1,171.2 million and $495.9 million of goodwill and intangible assets, net, respectively, in our consolidated balance sheets, which represented approximately 21.0% and 9.0% of total assets, respectively, and primarily arose through our acquisition of Mobile Mini.
We test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment on an annual basis and when events occur or circumstances change that indicate that the fair value of the reporting unit or intangible asset may be below its carrying amount. Fair value determinations require considerable judgment and are sensitive to inherent uncertainties and changes in estimates and assumptions regarding revenue growth rates, EBIT margins, capex, working capital requirements, tax rates, terminal growth rates, discount rates, exchange rates, royalty rates, benefits associated with a taxable transaction and synergistic benefits available to market participants. Impairment may result from, among other things, deterioration in the performance of the business, adverse market conditions, stock price and adverse changes in applicable laws and regulations, including changes that restrict our activities. Declines in market conditions, a trend of weaker than anticipated financial performance for our reporting units or declines in projected revenue, a decline in our share price for a sustained period of time, an increase in the market-based weighted average cost of capital or a decrease in royalty rates, among other factors, are indicators that the carrying value of our goodwill or indefinite-life intangible assets may not be recoverable. These risks may be heightened by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the event impairment is identified, a charge to earnings would be recorded which may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2020, we had US net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards of approximately $1,187.5 million and $700.5 million for US federal income tax and state tax purposes, respectively, available to offset future taxable income, prior to consideration of annual limitations that Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 may impose. The US NOL carryforwards begin to expire in 2021 for state and 2022 for federal if not utilized. In addition, we had foreign NOLs of $14.1 million as a result of operations in Canada and Mexico. Our Mexico and Canadian NOL carryforwards begin to expire in 2025 and 2038, respectively, if not utilized.
Our US NOL and tax credit carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code and corresponding provisions of US state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its US NOLs and other applicable tax attributes before the ownership change, such as research and development tax credits, to offset its income after the ownership change may be limited. We have completed Section 382 analysis for the Mobile Mini Merger. As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-Mobile Mini Merger US NOL carryforwards to offset US federal taxable income may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of US NOLs is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed.
Lastly, we may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which may be outside of our control. If we determine that an ownership change has occurred and our ability to use our historical NOL and tax credit carryforwards is materially limited, it may result in increased future tax obligations and income tax expense.
Some of the tax loss carryforwards could expire, and if we do not have sufficient taxable income in future years to use the tax benefits before they expire, the benefit may be permanently lost. In addition, the taxing authorities could challenge our calculation of the amount of our tax attributes, which could reduce certain of our recognized tax benefits. Further, tax laws in certain jurisdictions may limit the ability to use carryforwards upon a change in control.
We may be unable to recognize deferred tax assets such as those related to our tax loss carryforwards and, as a result, lose future tax savings, which could have a negative impact on our liquidity and financial position.
We recognize deferred tax assets primarily related to deductible temporary differences based on our assessment that the item will be utilized against future taxable income and the benefit will be sustained upon ultimate settlement with the applicable taxing authority. Such deductible temporary differences primarily relate to tax loss carryforwards and business interest expense limitations. Tax loss carryforwards arising in a given tax jurisdiction may be carried forward to offset taxable
income in future years from such tax jurisdiction and reduce or eliminate income taxes otherwise payable on such taxable income, subject to certain limitations. Deferred interest expense exists primarily within our US operating companies, where interest expense was not previously deductible as incurred but may become deductible in the future subject to certain limitations. We may have to write down, through income tax expense, the carrying amount of certain deferred tax assets to the extent we determine it is not probable we will realize such deferred tax assets under US GAAP.
Unanticipated changes in our tax obligations, the adoption of a new tax legislation, or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect profitability.
We are subject to income taxes in the US, Canada, Mexico and the UK. Our tax liabilities are affected by the amounts we charged for inventory, services, funding and other transactions on an intercompany basis. We are subject to potential tax examinations in these jurisdictions. Tax authorities may disagree with our intercompany charges, cross-jurisdictional transfer pricing or other tax positions and assess additional taxes. We regularly assess the likely outcomes of these examinations to determine the appropriateness of our tax provision. However, there can be no assurance that we will accurately predict the outcomes of these potential examinations, and the amounts that we ultimately pay upon resolution of examinations could be materially different from the amounts we previously included in our income tax provision and, therefore, could have a material impact on our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, our future effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes to our operating structure, changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets, changes in tax laws and the discovery of new information in the course of our tax return preparation process. Changes in tax laws or regulations, including changes in the US related to the treatment of accelerated depreciation expense, carry-forwards of net operating losses, and taxation of foreign income and expenses may increase tax uncertainty and adversely affect our results of operations.
We are subject to various laws and regulations, including those governing government contracts, corruption and the environment. Obligations and liabilities under these laws and regulations may materially harm our business.
Government Contract Laws and Regulations
We lease and sell our products to government entities, and this subjects us to statutes and regulations applicable to companies doing business with the government. The laws governing government contracts can differ from the laws governing private contracts. For example, many government contracts contain favorable pricing terms and conditions that are not typically included in private contracts, such as clauses that make certain obligations of government entities subject to budget appropriations. Many government contracts can be terminated or modified, in whole or in part, at any time, without penalty, by the government. In addition, our failure to comply with these laws and regulations might result in administrative penalties or the suspension of our government contracts or debarment and, as a result, the loss of the related revenue which would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. We are not aware of any action contemplated by any regulatory authority related to any possible non-compliance by or in connection with our operations.
Our operations are subject to an array of governmental regulations in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. For example, our activities in the US are subject to regulation by several federal and state government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and by federal and state laws. Our operations and activities in other jurisdictions are subject to similar governmental regulations. Similar to conventionally constructed buildings, the modular business industry is also subject to regulations by multiple governmental agencies in each jurisdiction relating to, among others, environmental, zoning and building standards, and health, safety and transportation matters. These regulations affect our Storage Solutions and Tank and Pump Solutions customers, most of whom use our storage units to store their goods on their own properties for various lengths of time. If local zoning laws or planning permission regulations in one or more of our markets no longer allow our units to be stored on customers' sites, our business in that market will suffer. Noncompliance with applicable regulations, implementation of new regulations or modifications to existing regulations may increase costs of compliance, require a termination of certain activities or otherwise materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
US Government Contract Laws and Regulations
Our government customers include the US government, which means we are subject to various statutes and regulations applicable to doing business with the US government. These types of contracts customarily contain provisions that give the US government substantial rights and remedies, many of which are not typically found in commercial contracts and which are unfavorable to contractors, including provisions that allow the government to unilaterally terminate or modify our federal government contracts, in whole or in part, at the government’s convenience. Under general principles of US government contracting law, if the government terminates a contract for convenience, the terminated company may generally recover only its incurred or committed costs and settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to the termination. If the government terminates a contract for default, the defaulting company may be liable for any extra costs incurred by the government in procuring undelivered items from another source.
In addition, US government contracts and grants normally contain additional requirements that may increase our costs of doing business, reduce our profits, and expose us to liability for failure to comply with these terms and conditions. These requirements include, for example:
• specialized disclosure and accounting requirements unique to US government contracts;
•financial and compliance audits that may result in potential liability for price adjustments, recoupment of government funds after such funds have been spent, civil and criminal penalties, or administrative sanctions such as suspension or debarment from doing business with the US government;
•public disclosures of certain contract and company information; and
•mandatory socioeconomic compliance requirements, including labor requirements, non-discrimination and affirmative action programs and environmental compliance requirements.
If we fail to comply with these requirements, our contracts may be subject to termination, and we may be subject to financial and/or other liability under our contracts or under the Federal Civil False Claims Act (the "False Claims Act"). The False Claims Act’s “whistleblower” provisions allow private individuals, including present and former employees, to sue on behalf of the US government. The False Claims Act statute provides for treble damages and other penalties, and if our operations are found to be in violation of the False Claims Act, we could face other adverse action, including suspension or prohibition from doing business with the US government. Any penalties, damages, fines, suspension or damages could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.
Department of Transportation Regulations
We operate in the US pursuant to operating authority granted by the US Department of Transportation (the “DOT”). Our drivers must comply with the safety and fitness regulations of the DOT, including those relating to drug and alcohol testing and hours of service. Such matters as equipment weight and dimensions are also subject to government regulations. Our safety record could be ranked poorly compared to peer firms. A poor safety ranking may result in the loss of customers or difficulty attracting and retaining qualified drivers which could affect our results of operations. Should additional rules be enacted in the future, compliance with such rules could result in additional costs.
Anti-Corruption Laws and Regulations
We are subject to various anti-corruption laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials by a US person for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We operate in countries that may present a more corruptible business environment than the US Such activities create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of our employees or agents that could be in violation of various laws, including the FCPA. We have implemented safeguards and policies to discourage these practices by our employees and agents. However, existing safeguards and any future improvements may prove to be ineffective and employees or agents may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible.
If employees violate our policies or we fail to maintain adequate record-keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately record our transactions, we may be subject to regulatory sanctions. Violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions and penalties, including suspension or debarment from US government contracting, and we may be subject to other liabilities which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. We are also subject to similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions.
Environmental Laws and Regulations
We are subject to a variety of national, state, regional and local environmental laws and regulations. Among other things, these laws and regulations impose limitations and prohibitions on the discharge and emission of, and establish standards for the use, disposal and management of, regulated materials and waste and impose liabilities for the costs of investigating and cleaning up, and damages resulting from, present and past spills, disposals or other releases of hazardous substances or materials. In the ordinary course of business, we use and generate substances that are regulated or may be hazardous under environmental laws. We have an inherent risk of liability under environmental laws and regulations, both with respect to ongoing operations and with respect to contamination that may have occurred in the past on our properties or as a result of our operations. For example, we own, transport and rent tanks and boxes in which waste materials are placed by our customers. Although we have a policy which, with certain limited exceptions, requires customers to return tanks and containers clean of any substances, they may fail to comply with these obligations. Additionally, we may provide waste hauling services, which involves environmental risks during transport. While we endeavor to comply with all regulatory requirements, from time to time, our operations or conditions on properties that we have acquired have resulted in liabilities under these environmental laws. We may in the future incur material costs to comply with environmental laws or sustain material liabilities from claims concerning noncompliance or contamination. Under certain environmental laws, we could be held responsible for all of the costs relating to any contamination at, or migration to or from, our or our predecessors' past or present facilities. These laws often impose liability even if the owner, operator or lessor did not know of, or was not responsible for, the release of such hazardous substances. We have no reserves for any such liabilities.
We are also required to obtain environmental permits from governmental authorities for certain of our operations. If we violate or fail to obtain or comply with these laws, regulations, or permits, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. We could also become liable if employees or other parties are improperly exposed to hazardous materials.
In addition, ongoing governmental review of hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) and its environmental impact could lead to changes to this activity or its substantial curtailment, which could adversely affect our revenue and results of operations. Approximately 2% of our consolidated rental revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was related to customers involved in the upstream exploration and production of oil and natural gas. A portion of this revenue involves rentals to customers that use the fracking method to extract natural gas. The US Environmental Protection Agency has issued regulations or guidance regarding certain aspects of the process. Other federal, state and local governments and
governmental agencies also investigate and/or regulate fracking. Additional governmental regulation could result in increased costs of compliance or the curtailment of fracking in the future, which would adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.
We cannot predict what environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted, or what environmental conditions may be found to exist at our facilities or at third party sites for which we may be liable. Enactment of stricter laws or regulations, stricter interpretations of existing laws and regulations or the requirement to undertake the investigation or remediation of currently unknown environmental contamination at sites we own or third-party sites may require us to make additional expenditures, some of which could be material.
Our customer base includes customers operating in a variety of industries which may be subject to changes in their competitive environment as a result of the global, national or local economic climate in which they operate and/or economic or financial disruptions to their industry.
Our customer base includes customers operating in a variety of industries, including commercial and industrial, construction, education, energy and natural resources, government, retail and other end markets. Many of these customers, across this wide range of industries, are facing economic and/or financial pressure from changes to their industry resulting from the global, national and local economic climate in which they operate and industry‑specific economic and financial disruptions, including, in some cases, consolidation and lower sales revenue from physical locations, resulting from the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic and the related changes in political, social and economic conditions. These and any future changes to any of the industries in which our customers operate could cause them to rent fewer units from us or otherwise be unable to satisfy their obligations to us. In addition, certain of our customers are facing financial pressure and such pressure, from COVID‑19 or other factors, may result in consolidation in some industries and/or an increase in bankruptcy filings by certain customers. Each of these facts and industry impacts, individually or in the aggregate, could have a materially adverse effect on our operating results.
Our operational measures designed to increase revenue while continuing to control operating costs may not generate the expected improvements and efficiencies and may not drive growth or returns.
We continually initiate new operational processes designed to increase revenue while continuing to pursue our strategy of reducing operating costs where available. Additionally, we employ a hybrid sales strategy of using local sales people in addition to a centralized call center team designed to meet customer needs and drive revenue growth. However, no assurance can be given that these strategies will achieve the desired goals and efficiencies in the future. The success of these strategies is somewhat dependent on a number of factors that are beyond our control.
Even if we carry out these processes in the manner we currently expect, we may not achieve the improvements or efficiencies we anticipate, or on the timetable we anticipate. There may be unforeseen productivity, revenue or other consequences resulting from our strategies that will adversely affect us or impact our strategies for asset management. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that our strategies will prove effective in achieving desired profitability, margins, or returns on capital employed. Additionally, these strategies may have adverse consequences if our cost cutting and operational changes are deemed by customers to adversely impact product quality or service levels.
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights that are material to our business.
Our ability to compete effectively depends in part upon protection of our rights in trademarks, copyrights and other intellectual property rights we own or license, including patents to the Mobile Mini locking system. Our use of contractual provisions, confidentiality procedures and agreements, and trademark, copyright, unfair competition, trade secret and other laws to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may not be adequate. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights and protect our proprietary information and patents, or to defend against claims by third parties that our services or our use of intellectual property infringe their intellectual property rights. Any litigation or claims brought by or against us could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. A successful claim of trademark, copyright or other intellectual property infringement against us could prevent us from providing services, which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, a breakdown in our internal policies and procedures may lead to an unintentional disclosure of our proprietary, confidential or material non‑public information, which could in turn harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our operations could be subject to natural disasters and other business disruptions, which could materially adversely affect our information systems, future revenue, financial condition, cash flows and increase our costs and expenses.
Our operations could be subject to natural disasters and other business disruptions such as pandemics, fires, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and terrorism, which could adversely affect our information systems, future revenue, financial condition, and cash flows and increase our costs and expenses. See "Our operations may be adversely impacted as a result of COVID-19." In addition, the occurrence and threat of terrorist attacks may directly or indirectly affect economic conditions, which could adversely affect demand for our products and services. In the event of a major natural or man-made disaster, we could experience loss of life of our employees, destruction of facilities or business interruptions, any of which may materially
adversely affect our business. If any of our facilities or a significant amount of our rental equipment were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could disrupt our operations, delay orders, shipments and revenue recognition and result in expenses to repair or replace the damaged rental equipment and facility not covered by asset, liability, business continuity or other insurance contracts. Also, we could face significant increases in premiums or losses of coverage due to the loss experienced during and associated with these and potential future natural or man-made disasters that may materially adversely affect our business. In addition, attacks or armed conflicts that directly impact one or more of our properties could significantly affect our ability to operate those properties and thereby impair our results of operations.
In general, any of these events could cause consumer confidence and spending to decrease or result in increased volatility in the global economy and worldwide financial markets. Any such occurrence could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may incur property, casualty or other losses not covered by our insurance.
We are partly self-insured for a number of different risk categories, such as property, general liability (including product liability), workers' compensation, automobile claims, crime, and cyber liability, with insurance coverage for certain catastrophic risks. The types and amounts of insurance may vary from time to time based on our decisions with respect to risk retention and regulatory requirements. The occurrence of significant claims, a substantial rise in costs to maintain our insurance, or the failure to maintain adequate insurance coverage could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to redeploy our units effectively should a significant number of our leased units be returned during a short period of time, which could adversely affect our financial performance.
While our typical lease terms include contractual provisions requiring customers to retain units on lease for a specified period, our customers generally rent their units for periods longer than the contractual lease terms. As of December 31, 2020, the average lease duration of our lease portfolio was approximately 32 months. If a significant number of leased units are returned in a short period of time, a large supply of units would need to be remarketed. Our failure to effectively remarket a large influx of units returning from leases could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Failure to close our unit sales transactions as we project could cause our actual revenue or cash flow for a particular fiscal period to differ from expectations.
Sales of new and used modular space and portable storage units to customers represented approximately 6.7% of WillScot Mobile Mini's revenue during the year ended December 31, 2020. Sale transactions are subject to certain factors that are beyond our control, including permit requirements, the timely completion of prerequisite work by others and weather conditions. Accordingly, the actual timing of the completion of these transactions may take longer than we expect. As a result, our actual revenue and cash flow in a particular fiscal period may not consistently correlate to our internal operational plans and budgets. If we are unable to accurately predict the timing of these sales, we may fail to take advantage of business and growth opportunities otherwise available, and our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results, which could lead to a loss of investor confidence in our financial statements and have an adverse effect on our stock price.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable and accurate financial statements and to effectively prevent fraud. We devote significant resources and time to comply with the internal control over financial reporting requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as amended (the "Sarbanes-Oxley Act"). There is no assurance that material weaknesses or significant deficiencies will not occur or that we will be successful in adequately remediating any such material weaknesses and significant deficiencies. We may in the future discover areas of our internal controls that need improvement. We cannot be certain that we will be successful in maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting and financial processes. Furthermore, as we grow our business, including through acquisition, our internal controls will become more complex, and we will require significantly more resources to ensure our internal controls remain effective. Additionally, the existence of any material weakness or significant deficiency would require management to devote significant time and incur significant expense to remediate any such material weaknesses or significant deficiencies, and management may not be able to remediate any such material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in a timely manner. The existence of any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting could also result in errors in our financial statements that could require us to restate our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, subject us to investigations from regulatory authorities or cause stockholders to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could materially and adversely affect us.
Risks Relating to Our Capital Structure
Global capital and credit market conditions could materially and adversely affect our ability to access the capital and credit markets or the ability of key counterparties to perform their obligations to us.
Although we believe the banks participating in our credit facility have adequate capital and resources, we can provide no assurance that all of those banks will continue to operate as a going concern in the future. If any of the banks in our lending
group were to fail, it is possible that the borrowing capacity under our facility would be reduced. Practical, legal and tax limitations may also limit our ability to access and service the working capital needs of our businesses. In the event that the availability under our credit facility were reduced significantly, we could be required to obtain capital from alternate sources to finance our capital needs. The options for addressing such capital constraints would include, among others, obtaining commitments from the remaining banks in the lending group or from new banks to fund increased amounts under the terms of our credit facility, and seeking to access the public capital markets. In addition, we may delay certain capex to ensure that we maintain appropriate levels of liquidity. If it became necessary to access additional capital, any such alternatives could have terms less favorable than those terms under our credit facility, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, in the future we may need to raise additional funds to, among other things, refinance existing indebtedness, fund existing operations, improve or expand our operations, respond to competitive pressures or make acquisitions. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to achieve our business or strategic objectives or compete effectively. Our ability to pursue certain future opportunities may depend in part on our ongoing access to debt and equity capital markets. We cannot assure you that any such financing will be available on terms satisfactory to us or at all. If we are unable to obtain financing on acceptable terms, we may have to curtail our growth by, among other things, curtailing the expansion of our fleet of units or our acquisition strategy. Additionally, future credit market conditions could increase the likelihood that one or more of our lenders may be unable to hone their commitments under our credit facility, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Economic disruptions affecting key counterparties could also materially adversely affect our business. We monitor the financial strength of our larger customers, derivative counterparties, lenders, vendors, service providers and insurance carriers on a periodic basis using publicly-available information to evaluate our exposure to those who have or who we believe may likely experience significant threats to their ability to adequately perform their obligations to us. The information available will differ from counterparty to counterparty and may be insufficient for us to adequately interpret or evaluate our exposure and/or determine appropriate or timely responses.
Our leverage may make it difficult for us to service our debt and operate our business.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $2,454.6 million of total indebtedness, excluding deferred financing fees and finance leases, consisting of $1,304.6 million of borrowings under our 2020 ABL Facility, $650.0 million of our 2025 Secured Notes, and $500.0 million of our 2028 Secured Notes. Our leverage could have important consequences, including
•making it more difficult to satisfy our obligations with respect to our various debt and liabilities;
•requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to debt payments, thus reducing the availability of cash flow to fund internal growth through working capital and capex on our existing fleet or a new fleet and for other general corporate purposes;
•increasing our vulnerability to a downturn in our business or adverse economic or industry conditions;
•placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt in relation to cash flow and that, therefore, may be able to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage would prevent us from pursuing;
•limiting our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and industry;
•restricting us from pursuing strategic acquisitions or exploiting certain business opportunities or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures; and
•limiting our ability to borrow additional funds or raise equity capital in the future and increasing the costs of such additional financings.
Our ability to meet our debt service obligations or to refinance our debt depends on our future operating and financial performance, which will be affected by our ability to successfully implement our business strategy as well as general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. If our business does not generate sufficient cash flow from operations, or if future borrowings are not available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before its maturity, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments or seek to raise additional capital, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations. In addition, we may not be able to affect any of these actions, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of our existing or future debt instruments may limit or prevent us from taking any of these actions. If we default on the payments required under the terms of certain of our indebtedness, that indebtedness, together with debt incurred pursuant to other debt agreements or instruments that contain cross-default or cross-acceleration provisions, may become payable on demand, and we may not have sufficient funds to repay all of our debts. As a result, our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt service obligations, or to refinance or restructure our obligations on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would have an adverse effect, which could be material, on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as on our ability to satisfy our debt obligations.
Despite our current level of indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries will still be able to incur significant additional amounts of debt, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future. Although the credit agreement that governs our credit facility and the indentures that govern our outstanding notes contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional debt, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and under certain circumstances, the amount of debt that we could incur in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. In addition, the credit agreement that governs our credit facility and the indentures do not prevent us from incurring other obligations that do not constitute indebtedness under those agreements. If we add debt to our and our subsidiaries’ existing debt levels, the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness described above, including our possible inability to service our debt, will increase.
We are subject to and may, in the future become subject to, covenants that limit our operating and financial flexibility and, if we default under our debt covenants, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations.
The credit agreement that governs our credit facility and the indentures that govern our outstanding notes, as well as any instruments that govern any future debt obligations, contain covenants that impose significant restrictions on the way our subsidiaries can operate, including restrictions on the ability to:
• incur or guarantee additional debt and issue certain types of stock;
• create or incur certain liens;
• make certain payments, including dividends or other distributions, with respect to our equity securities;
• prepay or redeem junior debt;
• make certain investments or acquisitions, including participating in joint ventures;
• engage in certain transactions with affiliates;
• create unrestricted subsidiaries;
• create encumbrances or restrictions on the payment of dividends or other distributions, loans or advances to, and on
the transfer of, assets to the issuer or any restricted subsidiary;
• sell assets, consolidate or merge with or into other companies;
• sell or transfer all or substantially all our assets or those of our subsidiaries on a consolidated basis; and
• issue or sell share capital of certain subsidiaries.
Although these limitations are subject to significant exceptions and qualifications, these covenants could limit our ability to finance future operations and capital needs and our ability to pursue acquisitions and other business activities that may be in our interest. Our subsidiaries’ ability to comply with these covenants and restrictions may be affected by events beyond our control. These include prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If any of our subsidiaries default on their obligations under our credit facility or our secured notes, then the relevant lenders or holders could elect to declare the debt, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other fees, if any, immediately due and payable and proceed against any collateral securing that debt. If the debt under our credit facility, the indentures or any other material financing arrangement that we enter into were to be accelerated, our assets may be insufficient to repay in full such indebtedness.
The credit agreement that governs our credit facility also requires our subsidiaries to satisfy specified financial maintenance tests in the event that we do not satisfy certain excess liquidity requirements. Deterioration in our operating results, as well as events beyond our control, including increases in raw materials prices and unfavorable economic conditions, could affect the ability to meet these tests, and we cannot assure that we will meet these tests. If an event of default occurs under our credit facility, the lenders could terminate their commitments and declare all amounts borrowed, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other fees, to be immediately due and payable. Borrowings under other debt instruments that contain cross-acceleration or cross-default provisions also may be accelerated or become payable on demand. In these circumstances, our assets may not be sufficient to repay in full that indebtedness and our other indebtedness then outstanding.
The amount of borrowings permitted at any time under our credit facility is subject to compliance with limits based on a periodic borrowing base valuation of the collateral thereunder. As a result, our access to credit under the credit facility is subject to potential fluctuations depending on the value of the borrowing base of eligible assets as of any measurement date, as well as certain discretionary rights of the agent in respect of the calculation of such borrowing base value. As a result of any change in valuation, the availability under the credit facility may be reduced, or we may be required to make a repayment of the credit facility, which may be significant. The inability to borrow under the credit facility or the use of available cash to repay the credit facility as a result of a valuation change may adversely affect our liquidity, results of operations and financial position.
The uncertainty regarding the potential phase-out of LIBOR may negatively impact our operating results.
LIBOR, the interest rate benchmark used as a reference rate on our variable rate debt, including our credit facility and interest rate swaps, is expected to be phased out after 2021, when private-sector banks are no longer required to report the
information used to set the rate. Without this data, LIBOR may no longer be published, or the lack of quality and quantity of data may cause the rate to no longer be representative of the market. At this time, no consensus exists as to what rate or rates will become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, although the US Federal Reserve, in connection with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee ("ARRC"), a steering committee comprised of large US financial institutions, is considering replacing US dollar LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR"). SOFR is a more generic measure than LIBOR and considers the cost of borrowing cash overnight, collateralized by US Treasury securities. Given the inherent differences between LIBOR and SOFR or any other alternative benchmark rate that may be established, there are many uncertainties regarding a transition from LIBOR, including but not limited to the need to amend all contracts with LIBOR as the referenced rate and how this will impact our cost of variable rate debt and derivative financial instruments. We will also need to consider new contracts and if they should reference an alternative benchmark rate or include suggested fallback language, as published by the ARRC. The consequences of these developments with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted and span multiple future periods but could result in an increase in the cost of our variable rate debt or derivative financial instruments which may be detrimental to our financial position or operating results.
Our largest stockholder may have the ability to influence our business and matters requiring approval by our stockholders.
Sapphire Holding, which is controlled by TDR Capital, beneficially owns approximately 26% of the issued and outstanding shares of our Common Stock and warrants giving it the right to buy 2,425,000 additional shares of our Common Stock. Pursuant to a stockholders agreement entered into on July 1, 2020, by and among us and TDR Capital and certain of its affiliates, including Sapphire Holding, TDR Capital has the right to nominate two directors to our Board of Directors, for so long as TDR Capital beneficially owns at least 15% of our Common Stock and one director for so long as TDR Capital beneficially owns at least 5% of our Common Stock. Two directors nominated by Sapphire Holding currently serve on our Board of Directors. Sapphire Holding may have the ability to influence matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election and removal of directors, amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, any proposed merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets and certain other corporate transactions. Sapphire Holding may have interests that are different from those of other stockholders.
In August 2018, Sapphire Holding pledged all of the shares of WillScot’s Class A Common Stock that it owned as security for a margin loan under which Sapphire Holding borrowed $125.0 million (the "Margin Loan"). The Margin Loan was scheduled to mature on August 23, 2020. On August 21, 2020, Sapphire Holdings entered into an amended and restated margin loan agreement which, among other things, extends the maturity date of the Margin Loan to August 29, 2022. As of December 31, 2020, 59,725,558 shares of Common Stock are pledged to secure repayment of amounts outstanding under the Margin Loan. An event of default under the Margin Loan could result in the foreclosure on the pledged securities and another stockholder beneficially owning a significant amount of our Common Stock. There can be no assurance that Sapphire Holdings will be able to extend, repay or refinance the loan on terms acceptable to it or at all.
The historical market price of WillScot Mobile Mini’s Common Stock has been volatile and the market price of our Common Stock may continue to be volatile and the value of your investment may decline.
The historical market price of our Common Stock has been volatile and the market price of our Common Stock may continue to be volatile moving forward. Volatility may cause wide fluctuations in the price of our Common Stock on Nasdaq. The market price of our Common Stock is likely to be affected by:
• changes in general conditions in the economy, geopolitical events or the financial markets;
• variations in our quarterly operating results;
• changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
• our share repurchase or dividend policies;
• other developments affecting us, our industry, customers or competitors;
• changes in demand for our products or the prices we charge due to changes in economic conditions, competition or other factors;
• general economic conditions in the markets where we operate;
• the cyclical nature of our customers’ businesses and certain end markets that we service;
• rental rate changes in response to competitive factors;
• bankruptcy or insolvency of our customers, thereby reducing demand for our used units;
• seasonal rental patterns;
• acquisitions or divestitures and related costs;
• labor shortages, work stoppages or other labor difficulties;
• possible unrecorded liabilities of acquired companies;
•possible write‑offs or exceptional charges due to changes in applicable accounting standards, goodwill impairment, or divestiture or impairment of assets;
• the operating and stock price performance of companies that investors deem comparable to us;
• the number of shares available for resale in the public markets under applicable securities laws; and
• the composition of our shareholder base.
ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
ITEM 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located in Phoenix, Arizona. Prior to the Merger with Mobile Mini, WillScot's corporate headquarters were located in Baltimore, Maryland. Our executive, financial, accounting, legal, administrative, management information systems, and human resources functions operate from these two leased offices.
We operate approximately 275 branch locations and additional drop lots across the US, Canada, Mexico, and the UK. Collectively, we lease approximately 84% of our branch properties and own the remaining balance.
Our management believes that none of our properties, on an individual basis, is material to our operations, and we also believe that satisfactory alternative properties could be found in all of our markets, if ever necessary.
Subject to certain exceptions, substantially all of our owned real and personal property in the US and Canada is encumbered under our credit facility and our secured notes. We do not believe that the encumbrances will materially detract from the value of our properties, or materially interfere with their use in the operation of our business.
ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings
We are involved in various lawsuits, claims, and legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. These matters involve, among other things, disputes with vendors or customers, personnel and employment matters, and personal injury. We assess these matters on a case-by-case basis as they arise and establish reserves as required.
As of December 31, 2020, there were no material pending legal proceedings in which we or any of our subsidiaries are a party or to which any of our property is subject.
ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “WSC.” Our certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. The Company had 229,038,158 shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020. The outstanding shares of the Company's Common Stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of 1,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. As of December 31, 2020, no shares of Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding, and no designation of rights and preferences of preferred stock had been adopted. Our preferred stock is not quoted on any market or system, and there is not currently a market for our preferred stock.
The Company issued warrants to purchase Common Stock as components of units sold in its initial public offering (the “2015 Public Warrants”). The Company also issued warrants to purchase its Common Stock in a private placement concurrently with its initial public offering (the “2015 Private Warrants,” and together with the 2015 Public Warrants, the "2015 Warrants"). The 2015 Private Warrants are identical to the 2015 Public Warrants, except that, if held by original investors (or their permitted assignees), the 2015 Private Warrants may be exercised on a cashless basis and are not subject to redemption. Each 2015 Warrant entitles its holder to purchase one half of one share of our Common Stock in accordance with its terms. The 2015 Warrants became exercisable on December 29, 2017 and expire five years after that date.
Pursuant to the warrant agreement, dated as of September 10, 2015 between Double Eagle Acquisition Corp. (defined below) and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company (the “2015 Warrant Agreement”), WillScot’s share price performance target was achieved on January 21, 2020 and, on January 24, 2020, WillScot delivered a notice (the "Warrant Redemption Notice") to redeem all of its 2015 Public Warrants that remained unexercised on February 24, 2020. As described in the Redemption Notice and permitted under the 2015 Warrant Agreement, holders of these 2015 Public Warrants who exercised them following the date of the Redemption Notice were required to do so on a cashless basis. From January 1, 2020 through January 24, 2020, 796,610 2015 Public Warrants were exercised for cash, resulting in WillScot receiving cash proceeds of $4.6 million and issuing 398,305 shares of Common Stock. Between January 24, 2020 and February 24, 2020, 5,836,048 2015 Public Warrants were exercised on a cashless basis. An aggregate of 1,097,162 shares of Common Stock was issued in connection with these cashless exercises. Thereafter, the Company completed the redemption of 38,509 remaining 2015 Public Warrants under the Redemption Notice for $0.01 per warrant. As of December 31, 2020, no 2015 Public Warrants were outstanding.
As of December 31, 2020, there were 12,710,000 2015 Private Warrants outstanding. The 2015 Private Warrants have not traded in an established public trading market within the two most recent fiscal years.
On August 15, 2018, WillScot issued warrants ("the 2018 Warrants") to the former ModSpace shareholders as part of the acquisition of ModSpace. Our 2018 Warrants are listed on an OTC Markets Group, Inc. Pink Open Market under the symbol "WSCTW." Over-the-counter market quotations reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission, and may not represent actual transactions.
Each 2018 Warrant entitles the holder thereof to purchase one share of WillScot Class A Common Stock at an exercise price of $15.50 per share, subject to potential adjustment. The 2018 Warrants were not exercisable or transferable until February 11, 2019 and expire on November 29, 2022. As of December 31, 2020, 9,730,241 2018 Warrants were outstanding.
As of December 31, 2020, there were 47 holders of record of our Common Stock, no holders of record of our Preferred Stock, 8 holders of record of our 2015 Warrants, and 37 holders of record of our 2018 Warrants. The number of holders of record does not include a substantially greater number of “street name” holders or beneficial holders whose Common Stock or warrants are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
To date, we have not declared or paid dividends on our common stock. We have strong recurring cash flows, which gives us flexibility in how we allocate capital, and we review the appropriate mix of growth investments, debt reduction, and returns to shareholders on an ongoing basis. Declaration or payment of dividends, if any, in the future, will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our then current financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
On July 2, 2020, we filed a registration statement on Form S-8 registering 6,488,988 shares of Common Stock, relating to awards to be undertaken in the future, with such vesting conditions, as applicable, to be determined in accordance with the WillScot Mobile Mini 2020 Incentive Award Plan (the "2020 Incentive Plan"). The following types of awards can be issued under the 2020 Incentive Plan: non-qualified stock options, incentive stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, performance compensation awards and stock bonus awards. See Note 17 in Part II, Item 8 herein for additional information.
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights (in millions)
Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants, and rights
Number of securities remaining available for issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a)) (in millions)
|As of December 31, 2020:|
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
|2,043,695 ||$||13.83 ||4,422,773 |
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
|— ||$||— ||— |
|Total||2,043,695 ||$||13.83 ||4,422,773 |
On August 7, 2020, our Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program that authorizes us to repurchase up to $250 million of our outstanding shares of Common Stock and equivalents. The stock repurchase program does not obligate us to purchase any particular number of shares, and the timing and exact amount of any repurchases will depend on various factors, including market pricing and conditions, business, legal, accounting, and other considerations.
We may repurchase our shares in open market transactions from time to time or through privately negotiated transactions in accordance with federal securities laws, at our discretion. The repurchase program, which has no expiration date, may be increased, suspended, or terminated at any time. The program is expected to be implemented over the course of several years and is conducted subject to the covenants in the agreements governing our indebtedness.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, no shares of Common Stock were repurchased, and the Company repurchased $35.3 million warrants and share equivalents, including withholding taxes on net share settlements of employee stock awards.
The following information describes repurchases of the 2015 Warrants during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2020:
|Period||Total Number of 2015 Warrants Purchased||Average price paid per warrant||Total number of warrants purchased as part of a publicly announced plan||Maximum number of warrants that may yet be purchased under the plan|
|October 1, 2020 - October 31, 2020||— ||$||— ||— ||17,561,700 |
|November 1, 2020 - November 30, 2020||1,650,000 ||$||3.52 ||— ||15,841,700 |
|December 1, 2020 - December 31, 2020||3,131,700 ||$||5.03 ||— ||12,710,000 |
|Total||4,781,700 ||— ||12,710,000 |
The following information describes the repurchases of the 2018 Warrants during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2020:
|Period||Total Number of 2018 Warrants Purchased||Average price paid per warrant||Total number of warrants purchased as part of a publicly announced plan||Maximum number of warrants that may yet be purchased under the plan|
|October 1, 2020 - October 31, 2020||— ||$||— ||— ||9,782,106 |
|November 1, 2020 - November 30, 2020||37,156 ||$||5.57 ||— ||9,744,950 |
|December 1, 2020 - December 31, 2020||14,709 ||$||5.93 ||— ||9,730,241 |
|Total||51,865 ||— ||9,730,241 |
The following stock price performance graph should not be deemed incorporated by reference by any general statement incorporating by reference this Annual Report on Form 10-K into any filing under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate this information by reference and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such acts.
The graph below compares the cumulative total return of our Common Stock from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2020, with the comparable cumulative return of two indices, the Russell 2000 and the Nasdaq US Benchmark TR Index. The graph plots the growth in value of an initial investment in each of our common shares, the Russell 2000 Index, and the Nasdaq US Benchmark Index over the indicated time periods, and assumes reinvestment of all dividends, if any, paid on the securities. We have not paid any cash dividends and, therefore, the cumulative total return calculation for us is based solely upon share price appreciation and not upon reinvestment of cash dividends. The share price performance shown on the graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.
ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data
WillScot was incorporated under the name Double Eagle Acquisition Corporation ("Double Eagle") on June 26, 2015. Prior to November 29, 2017, Double Eagle was a Nasdaq-listed special purpose acquisition company. On November 29, 2017, Double Eagle acquired Williams Scotsman International, Inc. (“WSII”) from Algeco Scotsman Global S.à r.l., which is majority owned by an investment fund managed by TDR Capital (the “Business Combination”). In connection with the Business Combination, Double Eagle domesticated to Delaware and changed its name to WillScot Corporation.
On December 20, 2017, WSII acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding ownership of Acton Mobile Holdings LLC.
On August 15, 2018, WSII acquired ModSpace. Results of operations from ModSpace subsequent to the acquisition are included in our consolidated operating results.
On July 1, 2020, WillScot Corporation merged with Mobile Mini, Inc. Results of operations from Mobile Mini, Inc. subsequent to the Merger are included in our consolidated operating results.
As a result of the Merger, we evaluated our operating structure and, accordingly, our segment structure and determined we operate in four reportable segments as follows: North America Modular Solutions ("NA Modular"), North America Storage Solutions ("NA Storage"), United Kingdom Storage Solutions ("UK Storage") and Tank and Pump Solutions ("Tank and Pump"). The NA Modular segment aligns with the WillScot legacy business prior to the Merger and the NA Storage, UK Storage and Tank and Pump segments align with the Mobile Mini segments prior to the Merger.
In connection with the Merger, we determined our reportable segments as discussed above and retrospectively adjusted prior years' presentation to conform to the current presentation of reportable segments.
The following selected historical financial information should be read together with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The selected historical financial information in this section is not intended to replace WillScot Mobile Mini’s consolidated financial statements and the related notes.
|Consolidated Results||As of and for the Year Ended December 31,|
|Leasing and services revenue:|
|Leasing||$||1,001,447 ||$||744,185 ||$||518,235 |
|Delivery and installation||274,156 ||220,057 ||154,557 |
|New units||53,093 ||59,085 ||53,603 |
|Rental units||38,949 ||40,338 ||25,017 |
|Total revenues||1,367,645 ||1,063,665 ||751,412 |
|Costs of leasing and services:|
|Leasing||227,376 ||213,151 ||143,120 |
|Delivery and installation||220,102 ||194,107 ||143,950 |
|Costs of sales:|
|New units||34,841 ||42,160 ||36,863 |
|Rental units||24,772 ||26,255 ||16,659 |
|Depreciation of rental equipment||200,581 ||174,679 ||121,436 |
|Gross profit||659,973 ||413,313 ||289,384 |
|Selling, general and administrative||360,626 ||271,004 ||234,820 |
|Transaction costs||64,053 ||— ||20,051 |
|Other depreciation and amortization||43,249 ||12,395 ||13,304 |
|Impairment losses on long-lived assets||— ||2,848 ||1,600 |
|Lease impairment expense and other related charges||4,876 ||8,674 ||— |
|Restructuring costs||6,527 ||3,755 ||15,468 |
|Currency (gains) losses, net||(355)||(688)||2,454 |
|Other income, net||(1,718)||(2,200)||(4,574)|
|Operating income||182,715 ||117,525 ||6,261 |
|Interest expense||119,886 ||122,504 ||98,433 |
|Loss on extinguishment of debt||42,401 ||8,755 ||— |
|Income (loss) before tax||20,428 ||(13,734)||(92,172)|
|Income tax benefit||(51,451)||(2,191)||(38,600)|
|Net income (loss)||$||71,879 ||$||(11,543)||$||(53,572)|
|Earnings (loss) per share attributable to WillScot Mobile Mini – basic||$||0.42 ||$||(0.10)||$||(0.59)|
|Earnings (loss) per share attributable to WillScot Mobile Mini – diluted||$||0.41 ||$||(0.10)||$||(0.59)|
|Cash Flow Data:|
|Net cash from operating activities||$||304,812 ||$||172,566 ||$||37,149 |
|Net cash from investing activities||$||(125,360)||$||(152,582)||$||(1,217,202)|
|Net cash from financing activities||$||(158,958)||$||(26,063)||$||1,180,037 |
|Other Financial Data:|
Adjusted EBITDA - NA Modular(a)
|$||394,805 ||$||356,548 ||$||215,533 |
Adjusted EBITDA - NA Storage(a)
|$||99,837 ||$||— ||$||— |
Adjusted EBITDA - UK Storage(a)
|$||17,822 ||$||— ||$||— |
Adjusted EBITDA - Tank and Pump(a)
|$||17,843 ||$||— ||$||— |
Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA(a)
|$||530,307 ||$||356,548 ||$||215,533 |
Free Cash Flow(a)
|$||162,279 ||$||19,984 ||$||(96,907)|
Adjusted Gross Profit(a)
|$||860,554 ||$||587,992 ||$||410,820 |
|$||142,533 ||$||152,582 ||$||134,056 |
|Balance Sheet Data (end of year):|
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||24,937 ||$||3,045 ||$||8,958 |
|Rental equipment, net||$||2,933,722 ||$||1,944,436 ||$||1,929,290 |
|Total assets||$||5,572,205 ||$||2,897,649 ||$||2,752,485 |
|Total debt, excluding current portion||$||2,453,809 ||$||1,632,589 ||$||1,674,540 |
|Total shareholders’ equity||$||2,141,277 ||$||644,365 ||$||638,215 |
(a) WillScot Mobile Mini presents Adjusted EBITDA, Free Cash Flow, Adjusted Gross Profit and Net CAPEX, which are measurements not calculated in accordance with GAAP and are defined below in the section "Reconciliation of non-GAAP Financial Measures," because they are key metrics used by management to assess financial performance. Our business is capital intensive, and these additional metrics allow management to further evaluate its operating performance. See below for reconciliations of non-GAAP financial measures.
Quarterly Consolidated Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2020
|(in thousands, except for units on rent and monthly rental rate)||Q1||Q2||Q3||Q4||Full Year|
|Revenue||$||255,821 ||$||256,862 ||$||417,315 ||$||437,647 ||$||1,367,645 |
|Gross profit||$||106,190 ||$||109,964 ||$||209,564 ||$||234,255 ||$||659,973 |
|Adjusted EBITDA||$||89,544 ||$||97,520 ||$||163,559 ||$||179,684 ||$||530,307 |
|Net CAPEX||$||30,540 ||$||36,383 ||$||33,323 ||$||42,287 ||$||142,533 |
Modular space units on rent (average during the period)
|87,989 ||87,096 ||111,227 ||111,793 ||99,526 |
Average modular space utilization rate
|69.2 ||%||68.5 ||%||70.6 ||%||70.9 ||%||70.2 ||%|
Average modular space monthly rental rate
|$||653 ||$||669 ||$||640 ||$||670 ||$||658 |
Portable storage units on rent (average during the period)
|16,346 ||15,869 ||143,840 ||160,538 ||84,148 |
Average portable storage utilization rate
|64.1 ||%||62.5 ||%||73.2 ||%||81.2 ||%||75.9 ||%|
Average portable storage monthly rental rate
|$||119 ||$||120 ||$||131 ||$||136 ||$||132 |
|Average tank and pump solutions rental fleet utilization based on original equipment cost||— ||%||— ||%||58.2 ||%||65.2 ||%||61.7 ||%|
Quarterly Consolidated Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2019
|(in thousands, except for units on rent and monthly rental rate)||Q1||Q2||Q3||Q4||Full Year|
|Revenue||$||253,685 ||$||263,713 ||$||268,222 ||$||278,045 ||$||1,063,665 |
|Gross profit||$||103,331 ||$||101,484 ||$||99,308 ||$||109,190 ||$||413,313 |
|Adjusted EBITDA||$||83,354 ||$||87,554 ||$||87,424 ||$||98,216 ||$||356,548 |
|Net CAPEX||$||41,814 ||$||43,199 ||$||37,761 ||$||29,808 ||$||152,582 |
Modular space units on rent (average during the period)
|93,309 ||92,300 ||91,233 ||90,013 ||91,682 |
Average modular space utilization rate
|72.4 ||%||71.9 ||%||71.2 ||%||70.7 ||%||72.0 ||%|
Average modular space monthly rental rate
|$||575 ||$||611 ||$||630 ||$||641 ||$||614 |
Portable storage units on rent (average during the period)
|17,419 ||16,544 ||16,416 ||16,944 ||16,878 |
Average portable storage utilization rate
|66.1 ||%||63.3 ||%||63.0 ||%||66.1 ||%||65.8 ||%|
Average portable storage monthly rental rate
|$||119 ||$||121 ||$||123 ||$||118 ||$||120 |
Reconciliation of non-GAAP Financial Measures
The following presents definitions and reconciliations to the nearest comparable GAAP measure of certain non-GAAP financial measures used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We define EBITDA as net income (loss) plus interest (income) expense, income tax expense (benefit), depreciation and amortization. Our adjusted EBITDA ("Adjusted EBITDA") reflects the following further adjustments to EBITDA to exclude certain non-cash items and the effect of what we consider transactions or events not related to our core business operations:
•Currency (gains) losses, net: on monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies other than the subsidiaries’ functional currency. Substantially all such currency gains (losses) are unrealized and attributable to financings due to and from affiliated companies.
•Goodwill and other impairment charges related to non-cash costs associated with impairment charges to goodwill, other intangibles, rental fleet and property, plant and equipment.
•Restructuring costs, lease impairment expense, and other related charges associated with restructuring plans designed to streamline operations and reduce costs including employee and lease termination costs.
•Transaction costs including legal and professional fees and other transaction specific related costs.
•Costs to integrate acquired companies, including outside professional fees, non-capitalized costs associated with system integrations, non-lease branch and fleet relocation expenses, employee training costs, and other costs required to realize cost or revenue synergies.
•Non-cash charges for stock compensation plans.
•Other expense includes consulting expenses related to certain one-time projects, financing costs not classified as interest expense, and gains and losses on disposals of property, plant, and equipment.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider the measure in isolation or as a substitute for net income (loss), cash flow from operations or other methods of analyzing WillScot Mobile Mini’s results as reported under US GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for our working capital needs;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments, on our indebtedness;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our tax expense or the cash requirements to pay our taxes;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect historical cash expenditures or future requirements for capex or contractual commitments;
•Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the impact on earnings or changes resulting from matters that we consider not to be indicative of our future operations;
•although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements; and
•other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.
Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as discretionary cash available to reinvest in the growth of our business or as measures of cash that will be available to meet our obligations. The following tables provide an unaudited reconciliation of Net income (loss) to Adjusted EBITDA:
|(in thousands)||Q1||Q2||Q3||Q4||Full Year|
|Net (loss) income||$||(3,674)||$||12,833 ||$||16,252 ||$||46,468 ||$||71,879 |
|Income tax expense (benefit)||790 ||(285)||(66,675)||14,719 ||(51,451)|
|(Loss) income before income tax||(2,884)||12,548 ||(50,423)||61,187 ||20,428 |
|Loss on extinguishment of debt||— ||— ||42,401 ||— ||42,401 |
|Interest expense||28,257 ||28,519 ||33,034 ||30,076 ||119,886 |
|Depreciation and amortization||49,022 ||48,377 ||71,704 ||74,727 ||243,830 |
|Currency losses (gains), net||898 ||(380)||(371)||(502)||(355)|
|Restructuring costs, lease impairment expense and other related charges||1,601 ||2,143 ||4,798 ||2,861 ||11,403 |
|Transaction costs||9,431 ||1,619 ||52,191 ||812 ||64,053 |
|Integration costs||1,685 ||2,153 ||7,083 ||7,417 ||18,338 |
|Stock compensation expense||1,787 ||2,227 ||2,944 ||2,921 ||9,879 |
|Other||(253)||314 ||198 ||185 ||444 |
|Adjusted EBITDA||$||89,544 ||$||97,520 ||$||163,559 ||$||179,684 ||$||530,307 |
|(in thousands)||Q1||Q2||Q3||Q4||Full Year|
|Net (loss) income||$||(10,029)||$||(11,438)||$||997 ||$||8,927 ||$||(11,543)|
|Income tax expense (benefit)||378 ||(1,180)||(1,220)||(169)||(2,191)|
|(Loss) income before income tax||(9,651)||(12,618)||(223)||8,758 ||(13,734)|
|Loss on extinguishment of debt||— ||7,244 ||— ||1,511 ||8,755 |
|Interest expense||31,115 ||31,668 ||30,005 ||29,716 ||122,504 |
|Depreciation and amortization||43,887 ||46,917 ||47,358 ||48,912 ||187,074 |
|Currency (gains) losses, net||(316)||(354)||234 ||(252)||(688)|
|Goodwill and other impairment charges||2,290 ||348 ||— ||210 ||2,848 |
|Restructuring costs, lease impairment expense and other related charges||4,741 ||3,152 ||1,863 ||2,673 ||12,429 |
|Integration costs||10,138 ||8,242 ||5,483 ||2,744 ||26,607 |
|Stock compensation expense||1,290 ||1,900 ||1,812 ||1,684 ||6,686 |
|Other||(140)||1,055 ||892 ||2,260 ||4,067 |
|Adjusted EBITDA||$||83,354 ||$||87,554 ||$||87,424 ||$||98,216 ||$||356,548 |
|(in thousands)||Q1||Q2||Q3||Q4||Full Year|
|Net (loss) income||$||(6,835)||$||379 ||$||(36,729)||$||(10,387)||$||(53,572)|
|Income tax benefit||(420)||(6,645)||(6,507)||(25,028)||(38,600)|
|Loss before income tax||(7,255)||(6,266)||(43,236)||(35,415)||(92,172)|
|Interest expense||11,719 ||12,155 ||43,447 ||31,112 ||98,433 |
|Depreciation and amortization||26,281 ||25,040 ||39,254 ||44,165 ||134,740 |
|Currency losses (gains), net||1,024 ||572 ||(425)||1,283 ||2,454 |
|Goodwill and other impairment charges||— ||— ||— ||1,600 ||1,600 |
|Restructuring costs, lease impairment expense and other related charges||628 ||449 ||6,137 ||8,254 ||15,468 |
|Transaction costs||— ||4,118 ||10,672 ||5,261 ||20,051 |
|Integration costs||2,630 ||4,785 ||7,453 ||15,138 ||30,006 |
|Stock compensation expense||121 ||1,054 ||1,050 ||1,214 ||3,439 |
|Other ||344 ||9 ||266 ||895 ||1,514 |
|Adjusted EBITDA||$||35,492 ||$||41,916 ||$||64,618 ||$||73,507 ||$||215,533 |
Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Profit Percentage
We define Adjusted Gross Profit as gross profit plus depreciation on rental equipment. Adjusted Gross Profit Percentage is defined as Adjusted Gross Profit divided by revenue. Adjusted Gross Profit and Percentage are not measurements of our financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to gross profit, gross profit percentage, or other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP. In addition, our measurement of Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Profit Percentage may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. Management believes that the presentation of Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Profit Percentage provides useful information to investors regarding our results of operations because it assists in analyzing the performance of our business.
The following table provides an unaudited reconciliation of gross profit to Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Profit Percentage on a historical basis:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Revenue (A)||$||1,367,645 ||$||1,063,665 ||$||751,412 |
|Gross profit (B)||$||659,973 ||$||413,313 ||$||289,384 |
|Depreciation of rental equipment||200,581 ||174,679 ||121,436 |
|Adjusted Gross Profit (C)||$||860,554 ||$||587,992 ||$||410,820 |
|Gross Profit Percentage (B/A)||48.3 ||%||38.9 ||%||38.5 ||%|
|Adjusted Gross Profit Percentage (C/A)||62.9 ||%||55.3 ||%||54.7 ||%|
We define Net CAPEX as purchases of rental equipment and refurbishments and purchases of property, plant and equipment (collectively, "Total Capital Expenditures"), less proceeds from sale of rental equipment and proceeds from the sale of property, plant and equipment (collectively, "Total Proceeds"), which are all included in cash flows from investing activities. Management believes that the presentation of Net CAPEX provides useful information to investors regarding the net capital invested into our rental fleet and property, plant and equipment each year to assist in analyzing the performance of our business.
The following tables provide unaudited reconciliations of Net CAPEX on a historical quarterly basis:
Quarterly Consolidated Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2020
|(in thousands)||Q1||Q2||Q3||Q4||Full Year|